Polaris solar PV net news: “our planes can fly continuously for a month. Problem is that pilots can do that? ”
Is to say that an deli ˙ boshiboge, he and friend Bertrand ˙ Pi Chade led jointly produced the world’s largest solar-powered aircraft “solar powered, 2nd” (SolarImpulse2), and have successfully completed a test flight. According to his view, their planes theoretically forever, the flight without landing.
17248 solar panels
Always flying, this is like the stuff of science fiction concepts. However, this concept when it comes to “solar powered, 2nd” above, rely on is 17248 solar panels. These monocrystalline silicon solar panels are very thin, each is only 135 µm thickness, they tile on the wings, fuselage and horizontal stabilizer for aircraft continued to absorb solar energy.
In order to be able to absorb solar energy, the wing was also built to extremely large, with a wingspan up to 72 meters, larger than the wingspan of a Boeing 747! As for solar panels the size of, also reached 269.5 square meters.
Solar panels absorb energy obtained through transformations, is stored in lithium-polymer batteries. For insulation reasons, engineers using high density foam wrapped up the battery, then put in four engine compartment; of course the temperature regulation system, to ensure that these batteries can work in a safe temperature.
The battery energy density is 260Wh/kg, a very high-end product in the lithium-ion battery, compared to hundreds of million of fuel certainly far Wh/kg energy density. Therefore, the battery total weight reached 633 kilograms. It is well known that greater weight, greater energy consumption, if the plane is too heavy, get energy from the Sun will be enough? In order to solve this problem, of course, can reduce the weight of the rest of it.
Thus, boshiboge led the team of engineers developed a new framework to remove all unnecessary functionality, losing every gram of unnecessary weight. Wing upper completely covered by solar panels, while the lower is a high strength high ductility of carbon coating “skin”, the wings there are 140 carbon fibre rods spaced 50 cm in order to provide stable support. This architecture to total body weight was lighter than top glider several times. In fact, it weighs only with a small truck, only 2300 kg.
However, like electric cars, solar-powered plane engine for performance rather than fuel a plane will be imperfect. Under the “solar impulse” official version, the system efficiency of aircraft engines at 94%, is already a record high, but the average output power of the 24-hour flight but 15 horsepower, maximum output power is only 70 horsepower (each engine 17.5 HP), or all the cars.
Lack of horsepower, speed is a problem. Is proportional to the speed and altitude of the aircraft, but overall is very low: at sea level altitude, the minimum is only 36 km/h, the maximum speed is 90 km, even at the highest level and maximum speed was 140 km. Moreover, in order to further conserve energy, the plane will also take day/night mode, that is to say, day-flying altitude of 8500 m, 1500 metres altitude at night, it’s no wonder boshiboge to worry about pilot cannot adhere to the whole flight.
Speed is obviously “solar power” series of shackle. Previous generation have accomplished in the past year across the United States to fly, but takes up to 45 days at a time; this time, Pi Chade and boshiboge team to “solar powered, 2nd” perhaps flight is expected to reach 500 hours.
So only boshiboge the sentence-they can always fly the plane in the air, but the pilot cannot adhere to the 500 hours. So, want to let fly the dream into reality, someone will have to address the pilot’s physical problems began.
Reduce the weight of the fuselage and consideration, “solar power 2nd” not equipped with a pressure and heating systems, so the pilot had to face was the extreme test from lingxia40sheshidu to lingshang40sheshidu. How should we do? Boshiboge team has also been perfect, they require pilots to wear more clothes.
More than that, of course, the “solar power 2nd” took a high density insulation in the cockpit structure, ensure as far as possible, pilots and an instrument will not be affected by temperature. In addition, in response to the high degree of hypoxia caused by aircraft with 6 cans on oxygen, if necessary, can give pilots more oxygen.
Specially designed cockpit with 3.8 square meters of open space, the flight seat can even flatten, keep the pilot on the plane from the rest–of course, due to the aircraft cockpit and can only accommodate one person, so the pilot can only take a little nap on the flight. “As soon as possible in order to ensure the restoration of physical and energy, our pilots need to undergo special training,” the official said, “self hypnosis and meditation techniques can help pilots maintain focus and alertness. “The machine is also equipped with food and water, and pilots a week enough demand.
According to plan, “solar power 2nd” travel around the world will be held next year, and 500 flying hours will be divided into different phases, spread over three months, where the longest single flight of up to 5-6 days. For human pilots, this test is pretty expensive.
Also see God face
As well as the physical challenge, pilots also need to face the test of new models. This new aircraft and pilots are often open planes, of course, are very different, so, in order to allow pilots to be able to adapt, “solar power” team also created a simulator, help pilots familiar with the operation and adapt to life below deck.
Autopilot system is also essential, in pilot break when, depending on this system to control the direction of the aircraft. Meanwhile, it also detects any potential barriers or security restrictions, offered warnings or making evasive maneuvers.
In addition, in order to ensure flight safety, aircraft will remain in Switzerland Beyene small-town mission control stays on the line, hundreds of technical parameter will be sent through the satellite data transmission in real time to the Mission Control Center. All possible situations encountered during flights through calculus, this Centre will ensure the aircraft to fly it in suitable weather. Of course, after a controlled flight when landing at the regional and at the international airport, Task Center will offer information and help to relieve pressure on pilots.
“Solar power” team, their ultimate goal is to apply a solar-powered aircraft to commercial flights, and establish a no fuel for airlines. They are obviously still a long way away: “solar power 2nd” wasn’t a very good performance on a cloudy day, let alone cope with the bad weather flight passenger comfort will guarantee there is speed and the weight of this will be a huge test.
However, the “solar power 2nd” has launched a major step in the history of mankind. As Pi Chade BBC interview said: “our aircraft is able to fly day and night without fuel circumstances, this is the biggest thing. The birth of this aircraft, it also proves that clean energy can do much to our world can become much cleaner. ”
Original title: Sky solar energy “perpetual motion” (photo)