Polaris solar PV net news: the first article principles and significance of article
1. What is solar power? What is a distributed PV?
Answer: PV refers to the use of solar cells power solar energy directly into electricity. Photovoltaic is the mainstream of photovoltaics, so solar PV now, people generally refers to solar power.
Distributed PV generation refers to the building, near the site where the user is running way spontaneous use of user-oriented Internet access, redundant power, and in the distribution system characterized by a balance of photovoltaic power generation facilities.
Distributed PV followed suit measures to local conditions, clean, efficient, decentralized principles of layout, nearest, making full use of local solar resources, alternative and reducing fossil energy consumption.
2. do you know the historical origin of photovoltaic power generation?
· In 1839, the 19 year old France becquerel when making an experiment in physics, found in two metal electrodes in conductive liquid when the light shines, current will be stepped up, so as to find the “photovoltaic effect”;
· In 1930, Lange first proposed using “photovoltaic effect” manufactured “solar cell”, is the solar energy into electrical energy;
· In 1932 ào dù bó tè and drawn down to Stowe’s first “CDs” solar cell;
· In 1941, Orr found on Silicon photovoltaic effect;
· In May 1954, United States Bell Labs Pirson and Philippines, fuller developed a monocrystalline silicon solar cells with efficiency of 6%, this is the first practical solar cells in the world. The same year, Wicker was first discovered the photovoltaic effect of gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide thin films deposited on glass to make solar cells. Converting solar energy to electricity practical photovoltaic technology was born and developed.
3. How does photovoltaic cells generate electricity?
Answer: the LFAT photovoltaic cell is a kind of light conversion characteristics of semiconductor devices, which directly convert solar radiation into direct current, is the most basic unit of photovoltaic power generation. Photovoltaic cells in crystalline silicon electrical characteristics is unique thanks to some mixed in elements (such as p or b, and so on), the molecules in the material cause permanent imbalance in charge, formed with special electrical properties of semiconductor materials. In the sunlight, with special electrical properties of semiconductors can produce free of charge, these free charges moving and accumulating, which formed on the ends of the electromotive force, when conductors will be closed at both ends, it produces electricity. This phenomenon is known as the “photovoltaic effect”, the abbreviation “photovoltaic effect”.
Schematic diagram of solar power generation
4. what parts of a PV power generation system consist of?
Answer: the photovoltaic system consists of photovoltaic (photovoltaic array formed by the PV module and parallel), controller, batteries, DC/AC inverters and other components. Photovoltaic power generation system is the core component of PV modules, PV modules is formed by the PV series and parallel and package, it will be Sun’s energy directly into electricity. PV modules generate electricity to DC, we can be in the form of direct current applied directly, or can be converted into alternating current of the inverter, and apply it. From another perspective, for photovoltaic systems produce electricity we can use, batteries and other energy storage devices can also be used to power up, release at any time as needed. Its system components as shown in the following figure.
5. What is a distribution network? Have to do with distribution networks with distributed PV?
Answer: the distribution networks from the grid or regional power plants receive energy through distribution or distribution facilities in place according to the voltage level is assigned to all types of users of the grid is determined by overhead lines, cables, towers, reactive power compensation of distribution transformers, disconnectors, capacitors, metering devices, as well as a number of subsidiary facilities, and other components, the General design of closed-loop, open-loop operation, the structure of radiating.
Distributed generator connected to the distribution network, the coexistence of electricity generation and electricity distribution system, distribution network structure from a radial structure becomes more than a power structure, short-circuit current size, flow and distribution are changing.
6. Why say PV power is green and low-carbon energy sources?
Answer: PV with remarkable energy, environmental and economic benefits, is one of the highest quality green energy. Average in our country under the condition of sunlight, photovoltaic power generation system life-cycle energy return over 15 times, more than double its energy consumption, PV power’s carbon emissions is coal-fired power 5%. EU for 2030 PV 15% per cent of the total electricity production of the grand vision. Developed countries in the world have them as emerging industries of strategic importance, and obtained the rapid development in the past 20 years. China faced with more severe of energy and environment pressure, as parameter than EU same of PV accounted for electricity 15% of target, is to 2030 China PV total capacity will reached 1.05 billion kW, by years power 1200 hours calculation, years electricity can up 1.26 trillion-kilowatt shí, equivalent 2012 national total electricity volume of 25%, can save with coal 408 million tons standard coal, achieved emission reduction carbon dioxide about 990 million tons, years emission reduction sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, and 9.14 million tonnes respectively, 1.84 million tons of dust, 230,000 tons, and can be reduced by 140 million tons of solid waste emissions from coal-fired power stations and water 3.175 billion tons. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) results from the effect of carbon dioxide emissions, solar PV installation 1 square meter is equivalent to planting of 100 square meters, develop photovoltaic renewable energy is going to be solved, such as haze, acid rain and other environmental issues effectively.
7. How do I look at reports that “production consume a lot of energy when the solar module” message?
Answer: the solar cell in its production process does consume a certain amount of energy, especially industrial grade silicon purification of high-purity polycrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon rods/multi crystalline ingot production three links of high energy consumption. But 20 LFAT 25-year life span of solar cell able to continuously produce energy during the period. It is estimated that the average in our country under the condition of sunlight, photovoltaic power generation system life-cycle energy return over 15 times, more than double its energy consumption. In Beijing the optimum tilt angle grid-connected photovoltaic system 1kWp installation the roof the energy payback period of 1 to 1.5 LFAT 2 years, far below-20 LFAT 30-year service life of the PV system. That is, the PV system 1.5 LFAT 2 years before electricity was used to offset its production processes, such as energy consumption, 1.5 LFAT after 2 years of the energy delivered is pure energy. So it should be from the perspective of life cycle energy consumption evaluation of photovoltaic cells.
8. how many of us can take advantage of the Sun? It could well be the future energy?
Answer: to receive solar radiation to the Earth’s surface to meet global energy needs 10,000 times. Surface per year per square meter received radiation varies between about 1000 different LFAT 2000kWh. International Energy Agency data shows that installing solar PV systems in the 4% desert in the world, would be sufficient to meet global energy demands. Solar PV enjoy broader space for development (roofs, buildings, open spaces and desert, etc), its potential is enormous.
With the rapid development of China’s economy, faces pressure on energy and environment, since 2007, China has become the world’s first carbon dioxide emitters, and will continue to rise. According to statistics from the International Energy Agency, added 300 million tons in 2012, China’s carbon dioxide emissions over Europe that year, 250 million tons of total emissions, increasing international pressure on China. It is predicted that by 2030, China will meet the emission points; not only are large importers of oil, coal imports also has become the first country in 2012 import 240 million tons of coal. Dependence on foreign crude oil up to 56%, China’s electricity consumption and electricity installed capacity is the biggest in the world, conventional energy reserve-production ratio is much lower than the world average. If not put photovoltaic renewable energy strategic industries such as a aims energy shortages, and the continuing deterioration of the environment cannot be fundamentally improved. Developing solar power and other renewable energies is one of the main outlet for China’s energy and environmental sustainability. With technology and large-scale application of photovoltaic power generation, electricity costs will be further reduced and become more competitive ways of energy supply step by step from the supplementary energy to alternative energy, and more apt to be the dominant energy of the future.
Note: the energy payback period (years) = life cycle energy consumption of solar system/PV annual energy output of the system.
Resources and application of the second article
9. solar energy resources are distributed in China?
A: the total solar radiation in China is rich in resources, presented “plateau is greater than the dry western plains, humid region is larger than the Eastern District” of distribution. Among them, the most abundant on the Tibetan plateau, the annual total amount of radiation more than 1800kWh/square meters in some areas, even more than 2000kWh/square meters. Resources in Sichuan basin is relatively low, there is less than 1000kWh/square meters area.
Total solar radiation levels nationwide and regional distribution tables
National horizontal global solar radiation chart
10. What are the application forms distributed PV?
A: distributed solar power refers to the building, near the site where the user is running way spontaneous use of user-oriented Internet access, redundant power distribution system characterized by a balance of photovoltaic power generation facilities.
Distributed grid-connected photovoltaic power generation including distributed PV off-grid distributed PV generation and many complementary applications such as micro-grid form. Grid type distributed power more application yú user near, General and in the, and low voltage distribution grid grid run, spontaneous use, cannot power or power insufficient shí from online purchased electric, power extra shí to online sale electric; away from network type distributed PV power more application yú China remote and Island area, it not and big grid connection, using itself of power system and storage can system directly to load powered; distributed PV system also can and other power way composition more can complementary micro electric system, as water/light/wind/storage complementary power system,, Micro-grid can be used as stand-alone or grid networks run; to build large photovoltaic systems on the ground in the Western region, for a specific user of power supply and load balancing over a public network, can also be seen as a generalized distributed PV generation.
11. distributed PV generation applies to what occasions?
Answer: application of distributed PV systems can be divided into two categories: one that can be used in all kinds of buildings (such as urban and rural roof, high energy-consuming enterprises plant and agricultural greenhouses etc) and public facilities to promote to form a distributed architectural PV systems. Choosing backbone network coverage area or load sets area using locally in all types of buildings and public facilities, the establishment of distributed PV systems, easing electricity shortages in parts of urban residents and farmers and herdsmen, and solve the problem of high energy-consuming enterprises producing electricity. Second, few in remote pastoral areas, Islands and other areas without electricity promotion, formation or micro-grid off-grid distributed PV power generation system. Due to the level of economic development for the reasons, some populations in remote areas still does not solve the basic electricity, works mostly in rural power grid large grid extends in the past, small-hydro, thermal and power grid extension is difficult and long power supply RADIUS and result in poor power quality. Development of off-grid distributed generation systems can solve not only at the lower end of grid electricity, basic electricity for residents of areas without electricity, you can also clean and efficient use of local renewable energy and effective solution of the contradiction between energy and environment.
Distributed building photovoltaic system
12. what locations suitable for installing distributed PV systems?
Answer: at present, our distributed PV systems, mainly concentrated in developed areas and electricity consumption are hard to public grid in remote areas of instability, is suitable for applications in the following sectors:
1) industrial plant: particularly in electricity consumption compared to the larger, power purchase price higher than factories, factory roof usually covers a large area, the roof open flat, suitable for mounting photovoltaic arrays; and because the load is large, distributed PV systems can be done in-place elimination, offset in part by the net purchase power, thus saving the user’s electricity;
2) commercial buildings: effect similar to the industrial park. Difference is that commercial construction for cement roof, more conducive to install photovoltaic arrays, but often have requirements for architectural aesthetics. According to shopping malls, office buildings, hotels, conference centers, resorts, and other characteristics of the services, user load is generally higher during the day, night-time low, perfectly matching photovoltaic characteristics;
3) agricultural facilities: the village has a large number of PV roof area available, including their own roofs, vegetables such as greenhouses, ponds, rural areas are often at the terminals of the public grid, it is difficult to ensure the distribution of electricity, and power quality is poorer, rural construction of distributed PV systems can improve the power protection and power quality;
4) municipal and other public buildings: due to standardize management, user load, and relatively reliable business conduct, installation is high, municipal and other public buildings but also for distributed PV focus on continuous construction;
5) in remote pastoral areas and Islands: because grid far away, China, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan provinces in remote pastoral areas and the coastal Islands still have millions of radio people, off-grid PV system or with other energy micro-grid PV system is ideal for applications in these areas.
Distributed grid-connected PV system in education, telecommunications, petrochemical, transportation and military industries are widely used.
13. What is a building-integrated PV systems?
Answer: PV building refers to a building and installation of photovoltaic power systems. And architecture in grid-connected power generation is an important application of photovoltaic power generation, technology is progressing rapidly, mainly in combination with the construction of photovoltaic electrical installation and building design. According to the different installation methods integrated with building can be divided into photovoltaic building integration (or building integrated photovoltaics, Building Integrated PV is the name in English, is the ordinary BIPV) and photovoltaic building additional (Building Attached PV is English, abbreviations are BAPV). Is defined as follows:
BIPV: using a specially designed dedicated PV modules, instead of the original building material or building component during installation, and building integrated photovoltaic systems. Demolition of PV modules building cannot be used normally. PV modules not only to meet the functional requirements of photovoltaic power generation at the same time it must first meet basic functional requirements of the building, such as durable, insulated, waterproof, adequate strength and stiffness properties, common PV Watt photovoltaic curtain walls, ceiling, Windows and photovoltaic PV photovoltaic sunshade or awning.
BAPV: using common PV module, installed in the original building does not substitute materials or building elements, mounted directly onto the roof or attached to the walls of the PV system. PV modules on the demolition of the building, and will not affect the basic functions of the older buildings.
Photovoltaics and architecture have the following forms:
14. the photovoltaic array in the lateral façade installation and installed on the roof of buildings what is the difference?
Answer: the photovoltaic arrays and structures can be divided into a combination of roof and side façade is installed in two ways, it can be said that two kinds of installation suitable for most buildings.
Roof installations are mainly horizontal roof, sloping roofs and photovoltaic roof. Of which:
1) horizontal roof: horizontal roof, photovoltaic array can be installed according to the best angle to obtain maximum capacity; and can be used with conventional crystalline silicon photovoltaic module and reduce component cost, often relatively better economic. But the installation of aesthetics in General.
2) sloping roofs: in the northern hemisphere, due South, South East, South West, East or West sloping roofs can be used to install solar arrays. On the roof in the South to tilt, you can follow the best angles or near optimum angle, thereby gaining greater power; the conventional crystalline silicon PV module, good performance and low cost, so it is a good economy. Features a building and without a conflict, can be closely integrated with the roof, beautiful and good. Other direction (South), followed by the performance of the roof.
3) photovoltaic roof: refers to the transparent photovoltaic roof of building elements, beautiful and good, and meet the needs of light transmission. Photovoltaic roof needs a transparent component, module efficiency is low; in addition to power generation and transparency, a roof components to meet certain mechanical, architecture requirements such as aesthetics, structural connections, components high cost; power cost high; architectural promoted social value, and bring the Green effect.
Façade-mounted side facade installation mainly refers to the building’s southern wall, (for the northern hemisphere) PV modules installed on the East wall, the Western Wall. And high-rise buildings, walls is the largest area of contact with the Sun’s outer surface, vertical solar PV curtain wall curtain was used more commonly, an application form. According to design needs, you can use opaque, translucent and transparent glass, creating a different building facades and interior lighting effects. Double PV curtain wall, point-supported glass photovoltaic curtain wall and unit PV curtain wall is the more common form in photovoltaic curtain wall installation. Current high cost of components used in curtain wall installed photovoltaic system project construction schedule control and due to deviate from the optimal installation angle of the PV array, low output power. In addition to PV glass curtain wall, photovoltaic facades, photovoltaic façade the awning can also be installed.
Photovoltaic curtain wall
15. agricultural greenhouses, ponds you can install the distributed grid-connected PV system?
Answer: the greenhouse “warming up, holding” the key issues has always been a problem for farmers. “PV farm greenhouses”, is expected to solve the puzzle. Due to summer of high temperature, in 6 ~ September many category of vegetable cannot normal growth, and “PV agricultural big shed”, like in agricultural big shed appearance filled has a points light meter, can isolated infra-red, block too much of heat in big shed; in winter and night of when, is can block big shed within of infrared band of light to outside radiation, reduced night temperature fell of speed, up to insulation of role. “Solar PV farm shed” can supply power of agriculture greenhouse lighting, surplus electricity grid. In the form of off-grid “PV farm shed”, and LED systems deployed, blocking light and plant growth during the day, while power generation; the night LED systems use electricity generated during the day and lights.
In fish ponds can also set up photovoltaic arrays, can continue to fish in the pond, PV array can also provide good shelter for the fish, can resolve the development of new energy-and land-intensive conflicts. Therefore, agricultural greenhouse and ponds distributed PV systems can be installed.
Solar agricultural greenhouse
Title III policy review
16. What is a “spontaneous, for personal use, residual Internet”?
Answer: the “spontaneous use, more than power” is a kind of distributed PV business models. For this operating mode, PV and outlets located in user load side of the meter, you need to add a PV reverse transmission measurement meter (table 2), or grid electricity meter (table 3) set to bi-directional measurement. User’s own direct use of solar power, to save on electricity bills to enjoy directly the power grid’s sale price against sending electricity measurement alone and settled to set feed-in tariff, in accordance with current domestic policies, according to the local power grid enterprises benchmark desulfurization of coal-fired electricity price to buy photovoltaic electricity. In this case, the PV users should as far as possible all PV power, for personal use, otherwise the value of electricity fed into the grid than personal use value of the PV electricity.
“Consumer policy” schematic and wiring diagram
After 2010, the PV cost decline, European photovoltaic electricity prices generally fell to below 20 euro cents per kWh, while European grid universal 20 LFAT retail electricity price 25 euro cents per kWh, PV into the “parity” era. In 2011, Germany introduced a “consumer” policy, namely “spontaneously occupied, more than power” policy to encourage PV users spontaneously occupied, power companies to buy surplus State PV feed-in tariff published grid capacity. In 2012, Germany the photovoltaic feed-in tariff (13 LFAT 19 euro cents per kWh) are significantly lower than the retail pricing of power grid (25 euro cents per kWh), PV users “spontaneous personal use” PV power efficiency, since the rapidly expanding consumer market, according to the statistics, 2012 Germany PV market one-third belongs to “spontaneous use, more than power” market.
Germany “consume” the advantages: “spontaneous use” solar PV electricity offset the electricity grid, no deal, the State has paid price subsidies, saving state funds, promoting technological progress and the transformation of distribution network side effects.
Germany “consumption” and “policy flaws:” spontaneous personal use “solar power reduce the turnover of power grid enterprises; reverse transmission capacity (more power) need transactions, increasing transaction costs; many small users unable to power grid enterprises invoiced against transmission in trading operations, Commerce and taxation issues need to be addressed.
17. “spontaneous personal use” capacity and “allowance Internet”: electricity subsidies in the same way?
Answer: the current national policy of distributed PV “unit charge fixed subsidies” approach, which subsidize the entire generation of photovoltaic systems are, so whether it is “voluntary personal use” power is “residual Internet” electricity subsidies according to the same standard.
18. What is the PV benchmark pricing policy?
Answer: “PV benchmark price” policy is based on the current cost of photovoltaic power generation, electricity prices in developed after taking into account a reasonable profit, PV project developers to the price of photovoltaic electricity sold to the grid companies, among them, higher part of desulphurization unit in the local feed-in tariff that exceeds “network-wide assessment” approach to cover the grid companies. At present, our policy only for high-voltage side
Large power stations with Internet access “tariff” means to cover. For user-side Internet distributed PV is used as output fixed subsidy system. In some countries “tariff” policy not only applies to large PV power plants, but also to distributed PV systems. “Internet pricing” policies in distributed solar PV system technical characteristics are as follows:
1) PV systems and networks and generating electricity metering meters (Figure 5) is installed on the user outside of the meter, and dot on the grid side;
2) PV power fed into the low-voltage public distribution network all;
3) power companies based on photovoltaic power “tariff” full purchase of photovoltaic power, billed monthly;
4) users to take power from the grid is the same as when not equipped with photovoltaic systems, according to meter fee.
“Internet pricing” method of grid-connected PV system connection diagram
“Internet pricing” policy was widely adopted policies of European countries prior to 2011. In 2000, Germany spearheaded the “tariff” method, the implementation of this policy greatly boosted Germany domestic PV market, consecutive years of PV power installation ranked first in the world. After Germany zhī hòu, other European countries have started to implement the “tariff” method, which makes the whole Europe’s PV market has grown rapidly, in 2007 and 2008, the European Photovoltaic market accounted for 80% of the world photovoltaic market. “Internet electric price” policy of advantages: power and electricity separate, guarantee has PV power of full acquisition; not exists power period and load not match of problem; regardless of himself construction also is developers construction, are is with grid Enterprise signed sale purchased electric contract (PPA), proceeds transparent, has guarantees, developers easy intervention; user electricity all payment, not effects grid enterprise of turnover; grid Enterprise only bear desulfurization benchmark electric price part, post by national fill, grid enterprise not by loss; all power are after normal trading, No loss of State tax revenue.
“Internet electric price” policy of shortcomings: with large PV station of commercial mode as, national subsidies desulfurization benchmark electric price on of post, needs paid more of funds; regardless of size customer, are to and grid Enterprise signed PPA, increased has trading cost; many small user cannot for grid enterprise development votes, operation shàng needs solution business and tax, problem; needs through reasonable effective of multi restricted mechanism, to formed can for public supervision of power market.
19. What is the unit of electricity fixed subsidies?
Answer: “unit of electricity fixed subsidy” policy referred to as “power subsidy policy” is in accordance with the supplement to send power to the PV system, as opposed to “investment.” Distributed power generation using electricity subsidies, which is characterized by “spontaneous use, and power”, that is, spontaneous use of photovoltaic power have no deal, States, in accordance with their own use of electricity subsidized, surplus electricity in addition to the desulphurization power price of grid enterprises to pay, but also enjoys State subsidies.
20. distributed solar power subsidies are identical in the different areas?
Answer: encourage power consumers, enterprises, professional contract as projects such as energy service companies, and individual units to invest in and operate distributed solar power projects. For distributed solar power, current and fixed with any distributed solar power subsidies, photovoltaic electricity benefits directly the impact of household electricity prices. Commercial and industrial electricity prices 0.8 LFAT 1.4 Yuan per kWh, large industrial power tariff 0.6 LFAT 0.8 yuan per kWh, utilities 0.5 LFAT 0.6 Yuan per kWh in electricity prices, government buildings, schools, hospitals and other public services, agriculture, and residential electricity consumption is only 0.3 LFAT 0.5 Yuan per kWh. Therefore, the unit of electricity installed in different buildings for different fixed subsidies distributed PV projects or power gains are different, it takes developers to judge for yourself, and decide whether the project is cost-effective.
21. on distributed photovoltaic-related policies should ask which Department?
Answer: about distributed photovoltaic-related energy policies should consult with municipal or county level authorities. Energy Administration Department under the State Council encouraged the municipal or county level energy departments of the local reality, establishment and application for grid access and network debugging and acceptance, a combination of tariffs and subsidies and settlement, distributed PV project record, completion of a one-stop service system, simplifying procedures, improving management efficiency.
22. how users access to national electricity subsidies?
Answer: network enterprise is responsible for directing and coordinating with project units to carry out parallel operation between distributed PV project commissioning and acceptance, purchasing and selling contracts with project units. Grid enterprise distributed PV projects of all generating capacity and electricity separately.
For distributed solar power projects on electricity subsidies. Power grid enterprises shall, in accordance with regulations of the State units clearing the project electricity and electricity price of electricity, and electricity subsidies in accordance with national policies, transfer to full generating capacity of the project to the project on a monthly State subsidy funds.
23. how distributed solar power subsidies paid to property owners?
A: users purchase electricity from the grid to perform normal electricity price policies, excess solar electricity grid from grid companies by local desulfurized coal-fired thermal power bar power purchase price.
Distributed PV generation corresponds to the electricity generated by the project to meet the project requirements for power users, utilities must assume supply responsibilities like ordinary electricity consumers.
Photovoltaic power generation project by the power of custom-building, contract energy management style may be used.
Energy contract management of enterprises and consumers in accordance with State provisions on contract energy management, energy services agreement signed. Custom-building solar photovoltaic power systems for personal use is not making a deal, for project owners to install PV on roofs in other power users for personal use of power, by project owners and consumers in accordance with energy management contract agreements for settlement. PV system capacity, excess solar electricity, the grid companies are responsible for measurement, statistics, PV systems take national electricity fixed electricity subsidies. Of measurement data based on photovoltaic power grid enterprises in accordance with the national electricity subsidy standard in accordance with the billing cycle funds transferred State subsidies.
24. the national energy policies on the expansion of distributed PV systems has affected?
Answer: July 7, 2012, National Energy Council released “solar power development Twelve-Five planning” (country can new can (2012) 194th,), proposed priority using building roof construction distributed PV power system, achieved concentrated development, dispersed development and distributed using common development; September 14, 2012, National Energy Council released “National Energy Council on declared distributed PV power scale application demonstration district of notification” (country can new can (2012) No. 298,), Plans in national promotion distributed PV power 15GW;2013 years February 27, national grid held press conference, to social released on do distributed power grid service work of views, solution has distributed PV grid difficult of problem; February 2013 national NDRC price Division external released “on perfect PV power price policy of notification” (sought views draft), proposed has PV power according to resources partition of Internet electric price and for distributed PV power of subsidies standard of preliminary views ; July 4, 2013, State released “on promoting PV industry health development of several views” (country sent (2013) 24th,), commonly known as “country eight article”, special proposed vigorously pioneering distributed PV power market; July 18, 2013, national NDRC issued distributed power management provisional approach, provides has distributed power of project planning, project management, grid access and policy guarantees of related principles; July 24, 2013, Treasury released ” Imposed on distributed PV electricity subsidies policy notification on the relevant issues, such as “(wealth building (2013) No. 390), defined the principles for distributed solar power subsidies and subsidies have principles, eliminating the project developers worry about subsidies owed to worry about. August 2013, the National Energy Board recently announced the first list of distributed PV demonstration area which lists 7 5 municipalities and involved a total of 18 demonstration zone project. This series of distributed PV policy introduced PV distributed at subsidized prices, and subsequent financial support policy promulgated a policy such as, clearly the strategic position of PV, development direction and application of the scale, solves the subsidy standards of distributed PV, grid access, and key issues such as funding, will contribute significantly to the promotion of distributed PV market in China. September 2014, the National Energy Board issued the notice on further implementation of distributed photovoltaic-related policies, and the State Council on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry opinions (24) was released, actively formulate policies and implement programmes in various regions, a powerful impetus to distributed PV generation in many ways in many fields, showed a good momentum of development. But all regions have varying degrees of policy has not been fully implemented, problems such as lack of matching measures, the imperfect working mechanisms. To crack the key constraints of distributed PV applications, vigorously promote photovoltaic diversified development, speed up expanding PV market size is now on further implementation of distributed photovoltaic-related policies. March 2015, the National Department of energy transmitted by water power profit planning and designing Institute of the photovoltaic pilot programming outline for poverty alleviation (revised draft), continued to promote this is to and perfecting solar progress in poverty alleviation work, for the production of photovoltaic reference implementation for poverty alleviation programmes for poverty alleviation.
Fourth project management articles
25. how to manage distributed PV projects?
Answer: the energy Administration Department under the State Council is responsible for national planning guidance and supervision management of distributed PV; local energy authorities under the guidance of the State Council Department in charge of energy, responsible for the construction of distributed solar power projects in the region and oversee management; commissioned National Solar photovoltaic centralized management unit, information and quality control work.
26. why distributed solar power projects need to record? Do not need any State subsidy project construction can begin?
Answer: at this stage still need State subsidies distributed PV, assuming annual 5GW installed distributed PV annual generating capacity of at least 6 billion kWh, 0.42 Yuan per kWh if the subsidy is required of 2.52 billion yuan. In order to optimize the allocation of subsidies, the record is a must. Distributed solar energy power generation project by the municipal or county level competent energy management implementation for the record. If the project does not need State subsidies, can then started directly after the introduction of record management.
27. distributed PV projects how to record, what material should be prepared?
A: item unit to a municipal or county-level energy Department of fixed assets investment application form application form and distributed solar power projects, should include the following materials:
1) in accordance with relevant provisions, buildings and installation of photovoltaic power generation system project;
2) land or roofs and other sites using certificates;
3) issued by the municipal or county level grid project grid access;
4) if the project is introducing energy management contract, you will need to provide energy services management contract with power users and other materials
5) other materials requested by local governments in accordance with the relevant provisions.
28. a filing failure or failure which may occur?
A: city-or county-level energy departments in dealing with projects completed within 10 working days from the date of filing the application record audits and audit opinion to project unit. When a proposed project when the cumulative size exceeded the district’s annual guide, local energy management shall publish a notice, stop accepting the project application. Within the validity of distributed solar power projects for the record, if there are no special reasons were not completed and put into operation, project record file is automatically invalidated.
29. the project also filed application to change it? How do you change it?
Answer: the project normally record cannot be changed at will. If special circumstances encountered during project implementation, you must change the original scenario, you must follow the procedures for application for change.
30. an individual (family) distributed PV systems installed how do you define it? Is there any preferential policy?
Answer: encourage power consumers, enterprises, professional contract as projects such as energy service companies, and individual units to invest in and operate distributed solar power projects. Personal (family) installation of distributed PV projects in principle “spontaneously, for personal use, power grid regulate supply and demand”, which use solar power to automatically offset grid electricity, does not engage in transactions with redundant Internet photovoltaic power grid company benchmark by local desulfurized coal-fired electricity price buy. Personal (family) as a project construction of distributed PV facilities, in principle, the size of individual projects is less than 30-kilowatt, the provincial Department in charge of energy depending on the circumstances, to simplify project management.
Fifth article design and install article
31. the distributed grid-connected PV system is made up of how many parts?
Answer: the distributed grid-connected photovoltaic system consists of photovoltaic modules, inverters, mounts and cable, combiner box, AC and DC distribution cabinets and control systems and other components. Combiner box, AC and DC distribution cabinets according to the actual situation and the monitoring system installed.