Why invest in PV power plant in Hubei enterprises enthusiasm gives

Polaris solar PV net news: policy dividends came that PV power station went to air.

Hubei Provincial Bureau of energy-related charge, the National Energy Board released on 18th of this month’s 2015 PV implementation programme pointed out that in 2015 the country added PV power plant size is 17.8 GW (1 gigawatt = 1000 MW). This data is much higher than the draft plan of 15 GW in 2014 and 14 GW, and in 2014 the actual new grid-connected PV capacity compared to 10.52 GW, an increase of more than 70%.

Led indicators are in Hubei Province: 2015-new building size 0.5 GW of PV power station, Hubei provincial indicators were 0.4 GW in 2014. Insiders pointed out that far exceeded market expectations for this year, to lift of PV industry development are quite obvious.

China University of Geosciences Professor Long Guangzhi optics expert, said, suggesting that national support for the PV industry, more significance is the PV subsidy policy. “Gate 40 megawatts of photovoltaic power station was built in September this year, the first annual energy output of up to 40 million, according to the national feed-in tariff for each unit of 1 can be achieved operating income of 40 million dollars and revenue of 6.8 million Yuan. “Shi Tongqin Tianmen city Vice Mayor said. “PV power plants of 8 years to recover its investment in Tianmen, photovoltaic power plant operational life for 25 years, which means the next 17 years can get steady income. “SSE Corporate Vice President he Huawu, joy was palpable.

PV power station, power plant approvals and grid barriers, strong profitability and return on investment of 10%-15%. GCL energy Holdings Limited and new market development Division senior investment manager Jiang gang said, PV module prices, increases the earnings of power plant developers. For example, 1-kilowatt PV panels need 10,000 yuan in the past, now just need to 7000 to 8000 Yuan, which is attracting businesses to join the cause of power plant operation.

Photovoltaic industry is facing a transformation and upgrading opportunities, photovoltaic module businesses before moving into downstream power station construction and operation, including topray solar, ultra Sun, hanergy holdings, and so on. Before the equivalent of selling flour, now sells flour to bake the cake.

Photovoltaic industry has become China’s richest man. Li Hejun, Chairman of hanergy group level has reached 200 billion yuan in value, impact the richest man on the throne of power. At present, China already has the world’s largest solar energy industry, it is not difficult to see why enterprises of photovoltaic power plants big investment.

Original title: investing in photovoltaic power plant companies enthusiasm gives

Energy coming two new opportunities in the Internet age concern

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, the sources said, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening system reform of electric power’s views on the forthcoming. In response, the industry believes, new change will open up the energy of the Internet era. In the electric power system market is not play, power pricing mechanism is not suitable, trading platform is not perfect, in this case impossible client participation, the new modified release placing side, stressing the motors independent pricing and trading systems, and lay a solid foundation for the advancement of energy Internet. Thus, benefit from new power to electrical equipment stocks are expected to rise shortly after.

Seen from the side yesterday, most showed an increase in the electrical equipment unit, 127 out of 85 shares shares rallied, rising stocks accounted for more than 66.93%. Among them, trading stocks, 13 are: Eston, elcoteq shares power, Shengyang, Sun power, Jin Li hua, Cheng Yi Tong, Yong da group, t-Mac power gas, electrical, power sources, Kay acrel, clou electronics, sunflower. 5% stock rose more than 35.

What is the energy of the Internet? Energy the core of the Internet is the Internet thinking is user-centric decentralized cooperation in the spirit of sharing. As the core concept of the third industrial revolution, energy + energy Internet is more than just a simple Internet and energy the fundamental difference lies in its use of the Internet the Internet concepts, methods and technologies to achieve major changes in energy infrastructure itself, makes opening of energy interconnection and the Exchange and sharing of information-sharing on the Internet is convenient, energy-Internet users are both energy consumers and energy producers. Experts say, micro-grid energy the core of the Internet is composed of cells, will usher in a genuine high-speed development period distributed photovoltaic energy Internet age will become one of the most important energy source; for electric vehicles is a key component of energy Internet, charging facilities play a role interface; storage in improving power quality and system stability has a significant role.

For energy Internet of investment opportunities, guotai Junan think, new electric modified broken Council, should tight caught two Dah Sing opportunities: first, placing electric side market, user of depth participation gave birth to new commercial mode: open sale electric licence open trillion level market, system change release bonus, light assets, and high profit of service type industry is expected to rise, open interactive will became energy interconnected of core highlights, user positioning of fundamental change led to has energy Internet achieved has energy and information of two-way free flow, formed widely of C2C mode. Second, big data applications will be Internet-energy trends: a digital smart grid, energy Internet offers ideas for fundamental reform in the energy sector is not only the Internet, but also produces explosive data, based on the smart grid energy Internet will reach a larger superorganism of energy production and use in the context of the data analysis. While, concern product into electronic (mass data), and section land electronic (closed ring mode), and Quartet shares (micro network), and special sharp de (EV and the sale electric), and wisdom light electrical (electricity service), and love Kang technology (distributed and the financial innovation), and Rainbow fine of (distributed and the big data application), and Solarfun electronic (distributed), and Shengyang shares (storage can), and long high Group (Internet EV), 10 only benefit unit.

Original title: energy is approaching two major new opportunities in the Internet age concern

2015 solar demand in China is expected to reach 18GW

Polaris solar PV net news: according to Bloomberg new energy finance (BNEF) ‘s latest forecast, 2015 China PV demand will hit 18GW.

BNEF stressed that 2015 PV installations in China the lowest possible 15GW, while its “optimistic scenario” for installing the 18GW.

What’s interesting is, BNEF pointed out that by 2016 electricity price subsidies, increased demand could be brought forward to 2015, promoting the optimistic projections of installed capacity is higher than the 18GW.

However, BNEF mid-range numbers in line with China’s national energy Administration set target 17.8GW PV installations in the country this year.

In an interview with reporters, Bloomberg new energy finance’s solar insight Director Jenny ˙ Algis Budrys (Jenny Chase) said that as 4GW completion of grid-connected PV projects are not national energy Board count as China this year could actually install 15GW.

This would mean 2015 when the new grid projects around 17.8GW quotas 60–80% can be reached.

In fact, Algis Budrys noted that its earlier forecast for 2014 installations has been temporarily pushed up to 13GW, up from a previous 12GW, mainly due to the completion of the project differ from those of the official number counting the number of incorporations.

Although the national energy Bureau recently canceled quota targets distributed generation, but BNEF expects 5GW to 2015 distributed generation projects 7GW. For roof-mounted project without restriction.

Original title: 2015 solar demand in China is expected to reach 18GW

Large State-owned enterprises in Jiangsu closed photovoltaic business

Polaris solar PV net news: yesterday, the reporter was informed that a large State-owned enterprises in Jiangsu have stopped all the photovoltaic business, dozens of employees currently almost wholly dissolved.

The State-owned enterprise was founded in the late 70 ‘s, is one of China’s largest state-owned enterprises. Group was formed in 2010 PV company (hereinafter “company”), with registered capital of 10 million Yuan, the solar modules, inverters, and supports the development, production and sales, and the design of PV systems and services. A company is positioned at the beginning of the establishment of “small but excellent”, mainly in the export business.

A former employee of a company who have left, told reporters that in recent years the company has been little profit, the Group eventually decided to give up the PV business.

In recent years, countries such as the US and European “double reverse” sanctions followed, tremendous impact on China PV industry, there is no time of transition and adjustment of photovoltaic companies dropped to the “pool”, such as a company. In addition, the mechanism of State-owned enterprises also become constraints brought about by the complex process, “such as project application is too slow, resulting in lost opportunities. “Our staff was moved to say,” private enterprise flexible, suitable for PV. ”

Familiar with the solar company insiders said, the company itself is small, no effort to operate, the market is not open properly, the “turn off is normal. ”

It is reported that a company has idled assembly plant recently to leasing capacity of 200MW. (Text/River)

Original title: large State-owned enterprises in Jiangsu closed photovoltaic business

Development speed PV PV manufacturing boom looking stabilisation

Polaris solar PV net news: view short description:

In the benchmark price and electricity price subsidies, for the record, a range of policies promoted by, photovoltaic power generation for nearly two years to obtain a rapid development in China, in 2014, however, by the slow development of distributed PV, dragged down PV development did not meet expectations. Recently, the National Energy Board issued a 2015 national target for new building size 17.8 million kW of PV power station, beyond the early draft target value 2.8 million-kilowatt, 2014, substantial growth in output is nearly 70%, domestic PV development accelerated again. Scale the 2015 development goals does not differentiate to the centralized, distributed, and dynamic management mechanism is established, the completion of the full year target is expected to be on autopilot. In overcapacity, European “double reverse” under the influence of PV manufacturing in the past two years, China has been pushed to the brink, and the future rapid growth is expected to ease the situation in the domestic photovoltaic power stations, photovoltaic manufacturing boom is expected to take the rebound.

Distributed power plant develops slowly dragged 2014 PV development has not yet reached the desired

In the benchmark price and electricity price subsidies, for the record, a range of policies promoted by, photovoltaic power generation for nearly two years to obtain a rapid development in China. In 2013, the domestic photovoltaic power installed 10.95 million kW, and accumulated substantial growth from the end of 2012 170%-17.45 million kilowatts of installed capacity. In 2014, the domestic photovoltaic power installed 10.6 million kilowatts, cumulative installed capacity at the end of more 60%-28.05 million kW over the end of 2013 while PV power generation has also grown dramatically, in 2014 the domestic photovoltaic power plant generating capacity of about 25 billion-kilowatt, 2013 growth over 200%.

Total installed PV power station has access to the fast-growing, but in terms of development goals did not meet expectations, and far below the National Energy Board in early 2014 to develop overall objectives of new installed capacity of 14 million kilowatts of current year (year down more than once in). Centralized and distributed development of photovoltaic power plant in 2014 is differences in fire and ice, where centralized 8.55 million-kilowatt added that year, exceeding 550,000-kilowatt, but constrained by issues such as property rights and development is relatively slow, distributed PV 2014 only finish 2.05 million-kilowatt, far below the target value of 6 million-kilowatt.

2015 PV development speed, target achievement is expected to be on autopilot

Smog and other environmental problems have become increasingly prominent in the social context, photovoltaic power generation as clean energy will usher in opportunity. Recently, the National Energy Board set 2015 national size 17.8 million kW added PV power station construction (National Energy Board notice on release 2015 PV implementation programmes to new [2015]73), 2.8 million-kilowatt higher than the earlier draft, from 2014 to complete growth nearly 70%, PV development speed.

Worth note of is, this times determines of added capacity does not on concentrated type, and distributed station made distinguish, but for total scale control, solution has distributed station development slow then effects target completed of problem; and, established has “months monitoring, and by quarter adjustment, and annual assessment” of dynamic management mechanism, “in April late qián, on not will added construction scale implementation to specific project of area, its scale indicators will depending on situation transfers to implementation good of area”, and “July late qián, by balanced hòu, Appropriate additional scale to the construction speed indicators “,” before the end of October, annual plans for the completion of the assessment, grid size not exceeding 50% in new construction scale, reduced scale indicator for next year. ” In addition, this construction of photovoltaic power generation programme also greater emphasis on rationality of the project, to prevent the “abandoned power” phenomenon. Benefits from these measures guarantee complete PV installed is expected in 2015 targets will be ripe.

PV manufacturing boom is expected to borrow speed PV development opportunity for stabilisation and

Overcapacity, trade friction between China and Europe and crystalline silicon, wafers and photovoltaic cells photovoltaic manufacturing companies face serious challenges, product sales dropped sharply, corporate underemployment, have brought many photovoltaic manufacturing companies to the brink. In January 2015, the United States of China PV product “double reverse” expanded from the photovoltaic cells photovoltaic components, laminated boards, panels, etc, then filled in the EU will be renesola, optoelectronics, solar solar companies excluded from the EU minimum PV module prices, despite the decline in nearly two years the importance of the European and American markets, but the main target markets for domestic PV manufacturing. Now, the rapid development of domestic photovoltaic power will ease the negative impact of market decline in Europe and America in 2014, new photovoltaic generating capacity increase of the world one-fourth, one-third per cent of domestic photovoltaic modules. Next, the rapid development of the domestic photovoltaic power stations which will bring PV manufacturing industry as a whole warmed up, PV manufacturing boom is expected to take the rebound.


Annex I


Annex II

Original title: development speed PV PV manufacturing boom looking stabilisation

2015 the global PV market demand is expected to exceed 54GW

Polaris solar PV net news: clean energy communications and consulting firm Mercom Capital Group recently predicted that around 2015 global PV installed capacity will reach 54.5GW.

Mercom recently has not yet provided its 2014 final number of installations worldwide, but PV demand remains strong is expected in 2015, China, Japan and the United States promoted.

Mercom Capital Group Chief Executive Officer and co-founder of Raj Prabhu said: “China and Japan have to overcome some problems making 2015 a global solar installation project and a great year. On the positive side of things, new financing mechanisms help reduce financing costs and bring new funding streams for the industry. ”

Mercom pointed out that in 2014, 10.6GW after China’s national energy administration official figures disappointed, 2015 is an ambitious target of China’s national energy administration, 17.8GW. In 2014, however, China has again become the biggest market is expected in 2015 will remain so.

As for Japan, Mercom, expected in 2014 about 9GW PV installations in the country, expected in 2015 figures were similar.

However, the United States is expected to overtake Japan as the second-largest market, according to Mercom, about its expected installed capacity up to 8.5GW, above GTM/SEIA 6.2GW figures released recently for 2014.

The European solar market in 2014 is said to have continued to decline, mainly because Germany was not up to 2GW of installed capacity, Mercom 2015 figures were similar (1.9GW).

However, since 2014 United Kingdom installed installed 2.2GW,Mercom is expected in 2015 the country 2.9GW.

With 2014 India installation numbers just appear (883MW), Mercom says its substantial growth is expected in 2015, for the establishment of 1.8GW goals.

Original title: the global PV market demand is expected to exceed 54GW

Decline in global demand for Taiwan manufacturers of photovoltaic cells are forced to cut price

Polaris solar PV net news: according to sources, given the sharp drop in global demand, Taiwan crystalline silicon solar cell manufacturers will quote from February 2015, the average price of polysilicon cells (0.30-0.32 dollars per watt), down from the current 0.28 to 0.32 dollars per watt.

With rising purchasing costs and EUR/JPY depreciated against the dollar, EU USA Japan PV module market demand has started to shrink, this is the major factor contributing to global markets fell sharply.

Because of falling demand, Taiwan solar cell capacity utilization is likely to result in early 2015, down to the end of March heads. Other non-first-tier firms could fall to around 50%.

If solar cell prices to fall further, Taiwan manufacturers could be forced to cut production to stem the price decline.

In response to the price decline, Taiwan solar cell makers plan 2015 Si module conversion efficiency increased from 17.6-17.8% in the second quarter. (Translator: Bian Xiaoyun)

Original title: the decline in global demand for Taiwan manufacturers of photovoltaic cells are forced to cut price

Installed but not grid-connected? Distributed PV generation it will be closed!

Polaris solar PV net news: Mr Wang, a teacher who lives in Langfang, a chance learned from television news reports after the PV, they can’t wait to get hands-on practice.

The morning of March 6, Wang told his friend that he was home to install a PV system in the afternoon, a 3KW system built in. It is reported that Mr Wang this photovoltaic power generation system using a total of 12 250W poly, covers an area of about 40 square meters. See here, dear readers must have and ZOOM make the same laments this fast, almost all users bemoan the installation of photovoltaic power systems when it is too long, Mr King day actually did it! But don’t worry, Mr Wang Jia PV story has only just begun.

“Exclusive coverage” installed but not grid-connected? Distributed PV generation it will be closed!

Top of Wang who lives in a modest apartment building, although the roof is great but it does not belong to Mr Wang’s unique, so Mr King to install the PV rooftop systems had to pass by the consent of all residents inside the building, and then to get the property agree. Mr Wang has always been good with people, the first cross-boundary checkpoints easily in front of PV. The thought that after the installation could be grid-connected electricity generation, the problem came again.

It turns out that area of Wang is higher self-governing community!

High self-regulatory hinder PV cases also have been reported before, in February this year, “new energy and sea” published in a blog article, calls for addressing this obstacle. Grid for residents electricity user into straight purchased electric user and high-pressure since tube households two big class, so-called high since tube, is refers to powered sector will power line sent to community property electrical room, to first circuit breaker device clear property, community within line equipment property belongs to property all, community within powered facilities (transformer, and switch, and cable, and user meters,) no transfer to powered sector qián by occurred of maintenance costs and security accident by property itself is responsible for, powered sector only meter total table power, line loss and internal power distribution by property bear processing. Power supply put power lines into a residential power distribution room, dress total calculation total community powered by property management, owners, purchasing electricity from the property purchasing power in the community, rather than directly to purchase electricity from the grid.

Since Mr Wang Jia are not users direct-purchasing electricity grid, but from the property purchasing power, therefore, if Mr Wang at home photovoltaic system power when there is a need to upload, is to upload to the community intranet, rather than directly by the community within the General tables uploaded to the power grid. In this way, Mr Wang electricity from the PV system have either been neighborhood spot to dissolve, if you want to sell electricity to the national grid, when uploaded in calculating PV power, will involve trilateral power grid, and the owner of the property settlement issues.

Now Mr King seems to be the only two solutions, one is the photovoltaic electricity is sold to the property, and another is the photovoltaic power generation system into off-grid systems. According to press reports, Mr King also installing PV systems and power grids, as well as property multi-link negotiation, but as of now, the grid does not agree to Mr Wang’s grid-connected PV power station alone, community property in which Mr King has not yet agreed to buy electricity. Grid-connected systems off-grid system, you need to install batteries, cost is often too high. Therefore, the grid was shelved.

About belonging to the high pressure pipe owners within the community, the “new energy and sea” suggested that owner has the option to “full use” of grid-connected, or at least can get PV subsidies. If owners home occupied during the day, large amount of electricity, photovoltaic electricity a few, more than significant. If the owners usually no one at home during the day, PV basic contributions to the property, and is not suitable for the installation of photovoltaic systems. Mr King’s road to photovoltaic power generation how to proceed? Reporters will continue to pay attention, also hope that the industry will have advice, solve problems for Mr Wang. (Text | Amy)

Original title: installed but not grid-connected? Distributed PV generation it will be closed!

Mercom Capital is expected in 2015 the world’s new PV installed capacity up to 54.5GW

Polaris solar PV net news: Mercom Capital’s latest report predicted 2015 global installed capacity will reach 54.5 GW.

Although many key markets are not very good last year, layoffs and the downward trend is evident (especially common in rapid expansion of enterprises). However, Mercom Capital co-founder and CEO Raj Prabhu said, at present, many of the world’s key solar market fundamentals remain strong.

“Last year, China has yet to achieve PV installed capacity goal. At present, China has substantially revised its initial forecasts. “Prabhu said that” on the one hand, it makes us understand how data quality on the other, this shows that the Chinese authorities did not fabricate data. They were recalled while still maintaining a realistic attitude. ”

Prabhu thought, Chinese solar market fundamentals more important than efforts to achieve the goals. In addition, in order to avoid substantial investment in new transport infrastructure, China is vigorously promoting the development of distributed PV sector. However, this is likely to cause confusion among the provinces set out to develop a distributed project. Although the Central Government has launched a set of guidelines, but the timing is still sluggish.

A few days ago, the Chinese Government formulated a 2015 target for new size 17.8 GW of PV power station construction. By contrast, the goal is 2015 PV implementation programmes in February this year (draft for soliciting opinions) set of 14 GW, meaning there were 3.8 gigawatts.

“The potential for new PV installed capacity in China is rising, but 17.8 GW look or seem ‘ ambitions too far ‘. “Prabhu pointed out,” of course, I think that now everything is ready. Policies already in place, all provinces have to understand what they should do. ”

China solar energy industry to be optimistic of the long-term prospects, largely derived from solar power seems to naturally conform to solve the environmental pollution problem, China plans. While China has deployed solar PV comes in support domestic PV manufacturing (dealing with the global plunge in the price of), but now increasingly serious air quality problems and the environmental pollution caused by coal-fired power is also promoting its expansion drive.

“All in all, China develop solar PV very excusable. “Prabhu said,” people are dissatisfied with the air quality has been issuing frequent protests, and solar and wind power is expected to become the solution. ”

By contrast, the United States’s air quality problem is unlikely to follow. Environmental protection by promoting renewable sources of energy to replace fossil fuels persuasion is unlikely. However, despite this, United States environmental protection agency Mercury with air toxics standards authority (MATS) that such regulatory institutions remain on the United States affect the deployment of solar energy, Prabhu said.

Mercom report showed that United States energy information Administration (EIA) estimated 2015 United States of at least 13 gigawatts of coal-fired power capacity from the stage of history. Many old and small power plant technology was no longer cost-effective. EIA also predicted 2015 United States about 60% ‘s new generating capacity comes from wind and solar energy.

Prabhu pointed out that, although the investment tax credit (ITC) is likely to be between now and the 10% of the 30% to the end of 2016, but the United States solar industry, regulations and directives remains crucial. But, equally importantly, innovative financing models and willingness to invest in solar energy projects by yieldcos such tools.

“We also pay close attention to financial matters. “Prabhu said” Mercom also examines financing activity in the renewable energy market. China and Japan this kind of strong solar market, United States has not set annual installed capacity goal. In the United States, financing costs are important factors for success. United States has been at the forefront of financing. ”

Japan and the Germany that focused on solar energy market “Fortune” was extremely generous incentives, but it also made them into solar power too expensive “quagmire”. As the Government revised incentive policies and the development of new financing techniques, Prabhu development of the solar market is expected to be back on track. (Compilation: Bian Xiaoyun)

Original title: Mercom Capital is expected in 2015 the world’s new PV capacity of 54.5 GW

Good policy photovoltaic industry to be cautious optimism

Polaris solar PV net news: PV this year or will usher in a large building. Recently, the National Energy Board formally issued by the 2015 PV implementation programmes. Programme makes it clear that in 2015, issued a nationwide scale PV power station construction 17.8 million-kilowatt (17.8GW) goal of 2015 plan new construction in various regions of centralized and distributed PV PV power station total cannot exceed the added issue of PV power station construction and scale of projects eligible for State Fund for renewable energy subsidies.

17.8GW goal is much larger than before the National Energy Board in consultation with the opinion issued at the scale. Issued by the National Energy Board in February this year the 2015 PV implementation programmes (draft for soliciting opinions) in the elaboration of national new grid-connected photovoltaic capacity target of 2015 for 15GW.

Insiders pointed out that, this year’s planned super market expectations, for the PV industry development of lift is very apparent.

Zhuo Wang Xiaokun information analysts read to reporters the importance of this policy for the PV industry: “This shows that the country’s attitude to the photovoltaic industry. By 2013, China’s total installed capacity of less than 5GW, which added nearly a year 18GW, in other words, national infrastructure take a supportive attitude towards the power plant construction and expansion, support for the following more meaningful is that PV subsidy policy may not be reduced, or if not particularly wide margin. ”

Reporters comb through discovery, national policy support for photovoltaic industry has been traceable. September 2014, photovoltaic industry, “section 15” enacting perfects distributed grid connected project records, receipts, electricity charges and settlement, fallback, financing and regulatory problems. Later, when Wu xinxiong said of the Secretary, National Energy Board, 2020 Plan to achieve more than 100GW of photovoltaic production.

Policy supporting the PV industry, to a large extent by foreign “double reverse” effect. Wang Xiaokun said: “in 2013, the size of the PV industry in China has reached more than 30 GW, amount of energy dissipation capacity but only for 2-3GW, that is to say, a large number of product sales dependent on exports. While in the European Union, the United States and other countries and regions the photovoltaic products are ‘ double ‘, products can’t be sold to foreign countries, thus leading to a production capacity of approximately 90% is no way to digest, and States to help save the industry, developed a very substantial subsidies. ”

Under the new normal economy, development of new energy sources, to promote environmental protection industry has become a new mode of economic development in China, and PV industry is supposed to be the backbone of the pattern and the beneficiaries. Wang Xiaokun said: “solar PV has been regarded as clean and green renewable energy, have attracted particular attention in our atmosphere now case, PV industry do this kind of support for us but also for environmental protection. ”

Good policy, PV industry cannot be blindly optimistic development model needed to change, and excessive reliance on policies encouraging is the PV industry’s problems.

Talking about future development model, Wang Xiaokun pointed out that photovoltaic products should be mainly to internalise, external energy dissipation will be lower and lower. Liu Chang said in a media interview, major needs in the photovoltaic industry has changed from previous Europe has gradually changed in China, Southeast Asia, Japan.

Except as soon as possible adapted main sales market of change, Wang Xiaokun also to reporter said has another a worries: “despite is environmental industry of a, but polysilicon in purification of process among purification is very serious of, actually many people think PV products environmental, is refers to PV products in power shí using solar of links is environmental of, but do PV station is has pollution of, early is has must of pollution and hard governance, also no a properly of way to good governance it. ”

In addition, substantial financial support from the State is a “double-edged sword.” Wang Xiaokun says: “PV power station now relies largely on State subsidies, 17.8GW equivalent to 17.8 billion kWh, subsidies is about 5 cents per kilowatt hour, a large amount of fiscal expenditure, State support is particularly heavy, so such a policy is not sustainable. ”

Original title: good policy photovoltaic industry to be cautious optimism

2015 solar plant construction will tilt toward the ground and distributed

Polaris solar PV net news: National Energy Board recently issued a notification of the 2015 PV implementation programmes. Notice in the scheduled 2015 PV installed capacity by draft 15GW (GW) increased to 17.8GW, and make a number of amendments to the rules.

The industry believes in 2015, installed capacity increased more than expected, showed the country’s determination to support solar development. In addition, modifications to draft some rules, it heralds a State policy of fine-tuning. 17.8GW’s installed capacity is expected to achieve this year, PV power plant construction to the ground and “distributed” tilt.

In addition to raising installed capacity, but the notice of draft rule changes, appears to have a policy adjustment. First, the notice of removal of the distributed and ground station construction division of the scale ratio, showed the nation relaxed its restrictions on ground power station construction.

From last year’s construction, the ground station construction is faster in a distributed. According to the statistics of the National Energy Board, in 2014, the complete large terrestrial power station 8.55GW, complete distributed power station 2.05GW, distributed power station construction plan of far 8GW, and ground power station beyond the scheme 2.55GW. In the case of ground station construction is not restricted by the State, 17.8GW of installed capacity will tilt toward the ground station. Yingli Green energy official says national ground power and distributed power plant construction will be raised from last year’s 6:8 draft 8:7, then to the end when they issued the notice to cancel ratio, showing the country relax the restrictions on the ground of power plant construction. The official also said the news that next year or UHV construction will be accelerated in the West, the constraints in the past Western PV will be cleared a major obstacle to development of new energy sources such as electricity, the State relaxed restrictions on ground station probably related to the UHV construction in West China to speed up.

Second, the notice clearly encourages complementary agricultural complementarity, fishing light and other projects. According to the circular, scale of 1.6GW will be devoted to supporting the photovoltaic plant of photovoltaic pilot counties for poverty alleviation projects. Previous draft intended for large distributed projects such as farming, fishing limits. Under the draft, under the total distributed case, does not qualify the roof construction of distributed PV scale, showing large distributed projects is limited.

Jinkosolar, brand Director Qian Jing think that speed of large distributed projects this year will be speeded up. Previously, jinko Xian de, Chairman disclosed that apt has been in coastal areas, there are 20 large distributed projects under construction.

Third, the distributed notification cancel draft on the roof 3.15GW minimum building size restrictions, by hard and fast rules to encourage.

Photovoltaic Research Institute NDPSolarbuzz, senior analyst at Lian Rui believes that States abolish the minimum size limit, does not mean the country supports distributed policy fundamentals changed the roof. Roofs, there are many problems in distributed development, relying on mandatory would not boost its development. At present, many local government policies that promoted the development of rooftop PV, rooftop PV installed capacity this year is expected to be better than last year. More recently, provinces such as Anhui, Beijing, the city announced it would from the province, providing funds to the city distributed in photovoltaic construction subsidies.

Based on the continued support of the national policy, as well as recognised and sought after in the market, and industry estimates, 2015, 17.8GW, PV target can be achieved.

Original title: 2015 solar plant construction will tilt toward the ground and distributed

“Collector’s Edition” China distributed PV 55 questions and answers

Polaris solar PV net news: the first article principles and significance of article

1. What is solar power? What is a distributed PV?

Answer: PV refers to the use of solar cells power solar energy directly into electricity. Photovoltaic is the mainstream of photovoltaics, so solar PV now, people generally refers to solar power.

Distributed PV generation refers to the building, near the site where the user is running way spontaneous use of user-oriented Internet access, redundant power, and in the distribution system characterized by a balance of photovoltaic power generation facilities.

Distributed PV followed suit measures to local conditions, clean, efficient, decentralized principles of layout, nearest, making full use of local solar resources, alternative and reducing fossil energy consumption.

2. do you know the historical origin of photovoltaic power generation?

Answer:

· In 1839, the 19 year old France becquerel when making an experiment in physics, found in two metal electrodes in conductive liquid when the light shines, current will be stepped up, so as to find the “photovoltaic effect”;

· In 1930, Lange first proposed using “photovoltaic effect” manufactured “solar cell”, is the solar energy into electrical energy;

· In 1932 ào dù bó tè and drawn down to Stowe’s first “CDs” solar cell;

· In 1941, Orr found on Silicon photovoltaic effect;

· In May 1954, United States Bell Labs Pirson and Philippines, fuller developed a monocrystalline silicon solar cells with efficiency of 6%, this is the first practical solar cells in the world. The same year, Wicker was first discovered the photovoltaic effect of gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide thin films deposited on glass to make solar cells. Converting solar energy to electricity practical photovoltaic technology was born and developed.

3. How does photovoltaic cells generate electricity?

Answer: the LFAT photovoltaic cell is a kind of light conversion characteristics of semiconductor devices, which directly convert solar radiation into direct current, is the most basic unit of photovoltaic power generation. Photovoltaic cells in crystalline silicon electrical characteristics is unique thanks to some mixed in elements (such as p or b, and so on), the molecules in the material cause permanent imbalance in charge, formed with special electrical properties of semiconductor materials. In the sunlight, with special electrical properties of semiconductors can produce free of charge, these free charges moving and accumulating, which formed on the ends of the electromotive force, when conductors will be closed at both ends, it produces electricity. This phenomenon is known as the “photovoltaic effect”, the abbreviation “photovoltaic effect”.

Schematic diagram of solar power generation

4. what parts of a PV power generation system consist of?

Answer: the photovoltaic system consists of photovoltaic (photovoltaic array formed by the PV module and parallel), controller, batteries, DC/AC inverters and other components. Photovoltaic power generation system is the core component of PV modules, PV modules is formed by the PV series and parallel and package, it will be Sun’s energy directly into electricity. PV modules generate electricity to DC, we can be in the form of direct current applied directly, or can be converted into alternating current of the inverter, and apply it. From another perspective, for photovoltaic systems produce electricity we can use, batteries and other energy storage devices can also be used to power up, release at any time as needed. Its system components as shown in the following figure.

5. What is a distribution network? Have to do with distribution networks with distributed PV?

Answer: the distribution networks from the grid or regional power plants receive energy through distribution or distribution facilities in place according to the voltage level is assigned to all types of users of the grid is determined by overhead lines, cables, towers, reactive power compensation of distribution transformers, disconnectors, capacitors, metering devices, as well as a number of subsidiary facilities, and other components, the General design of closed-loop, open-loop operation, the structure of radiating.

Distributed generator connected to the distribution network, the coexistence of electricity generation and electricity distribution system, distribution network structure from a radial structure becomes more than a power structure, short-circuit current size, flow and distribution are changing.

6. Why say PV power is green and low-carbon energy sources?

Answer: PV with remarkable energy, environmental and economic benefits, is one of the highest quality green energy. Average in our country under the condition of sunlight, photovoltaic power generation system life-cycle energy return over 15 times, more than double its energy consumption, PV power’s carbon emissions is coal-fired power 5%. EU for 2030 PV 15% per cent of the total electricity production of the grand vision. Developed countries in the world have them as emerging industries of strategic importance, and obtained the rapid development in the past 20 years. China faced with more severe of energy and environment pressure, as parameter than EU same of PV accounted for electricity 15% of target, is to 2030 China PV total capacity will reached 1.05 billion kW, by years power 1200 hours calculation, years electricity can up 1.26 trillion-kilowatt shí, equivalent 2012 national total electricity volume of 25%, can save with coal 408 million tons standard coal, achieved emission reduction carbon dioxide about 990 million tons, years emission reduction sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, and 9.14 million tonnes respectively, 1.84 million tons of dust, 230,000 tons, and can be reduced by 140 million tons of solid waste emissions from coal-fired power stations and water 3.175 billion tons. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) results from the effect of carbon dioxide emissions, solar PV installation 1 square meter is equivalent to planting of 100 square meters, develop photovoltaic renewable energy is going to be solved, such as haze, acid rain and other environmental issues effectively.

7. How do I look at reports that “production consume a lot of energy when the solar module” message?

Answer: the solar cell in its production process does consume a certain amount of energy, especially industrial grade silicon purification of high-purity polycrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon rods/multi crystalline ingot production three links of high energy consumption. But 20 LFAT 25-year life span of solar cell able to continuously produce energy during the period. It is estimated that the average in our country under the condition of sunlight, photovoltaic power generation system life-cycle energy return over 15 times, more than double its energy consumption. In Beijing the optimum tilt angle grid-connected photovoltaic system 1kWp installation the roof the energy payback period of 1 to 1.5 LFAT 2 years, far below-20 LFAT 30-year service life of the PV system. That is, the PV system 1.5 LFAT 2 years before electricity was used to offset its production processes, such as energy consumption, 1.5 LFAT after 2 years of the energy delivered is pure energy. So it should be from the perspective of life cycle energy consumption evaluation of photovoltaic cells.

8. how many of us can take advantage of the Sun? It could well be the future energy?

Answer: to receive solar radiation to the Earth’s surface to meet global energy needs 10,000 times. Surface per year per square meter received radiation varies between about 1000 different LFAT 2000kWh. International Energy Agency data shows that installing solar PV systems in the 4% desert in the world, would be sufficient to meet global energy demands. Solar PV enjoy broader space for development (roofs, buildings, open spaces and desert, etc), its potential is enormous.

With the rapid development of China’s economy, faces pressure on energy and environment, since 2007, China has become the world’s first carbon dioxide emitters, and will continue to rise. According to statistics from the International Energy Agency, added 300 million tons in 2012, China’s carbon dioxide emissions over Europe that year, 250 million tons of total emissions, increasing international pressure on China. It is predicted that by 2030, China will meet the emission points; not only are large importers of oil, coal imports also has become the first country in 2012 import 240 million tons of coal. Dependence on foreign crude oil up to 56%, China’s electricity consumption and electricity installed capacity is the biggest in the world, conventional energy reserve-production ratio is much lower than the world average. If not put photovoltaic renewable energy strategic industries such as a aims energy shortages, and the continuing deterioration of the environment cannot be fundamentally improved. Developing solar power and other renewable energies is one of the main outlet for China’s energy and environmental sustainability. With technology and large-scale application of photovoltaic power generation, electricity costs will be further reduced and become more competitive ways of energy supply step by step from the supplementary energy to alternative energy, and more apt to be the dominant energy of the future.

Note: the energy payback period (years) = life cycle energy consumption of solar system/PV annual energy output of the system.

Resources and application of the second article

9. solar energy resources are distributed in China?

A: the total solar radiation in China is rich in resources, presented “plateau is greater than the dry western plains, humid region is larger than the Eastern District” of distribution. Among them, the most abundant on the Tibetan plateau, the annual total amount of radiation more than 1800kWh/square meters in some areas, even more than 2000kWh/square meters. Resources in Sichuan basin is relatively low, there is less than 1000kWh/square meters area.

Total solar radiation levels nationwide and regional distribution tables


National horizontal global solar radiation chart

10. What are the application forms distributed PV?

A: distributed solar power refers to the building, near the site where the user is running way spontaneous use of user-oriented Internet access, redundant power distribution system characterized by a balance of photovoltaic power generation facilities.

Distributed grid-connected photovoltaic power generation including distributed PV off-grid distributed PV generation and many complementary applications such as micro-grid form. Grid type distributed power more application yú user near, General and in the, and low voltage distribution grid grid run, spontaneous use, cannot power or power insufficient shí from online purchased electric, power extra shí to online sale electric; away from network type distributed PV power more application yú China remote and Island area, it not and big grid connection, using itself of power system and storage can system directly to load powered; distributed PV system also can and other power way composition more can complementary micro electric system, as water/light/wind/storage complementary power system,, Micro-grid can be used as stand-alone or grid networks run; to build large photovoltaic systems on the ground in the Western region, for a specific user of power supply and load balancing over a public network, can also be seen as a generalized distributed PV generation.

11. distributed PV generation applies to what occasions?

Answer: application of distributed PV systems can be divided into two categories: one that can be used in all kinds of buildings (such as urban and rural roof, high energy-consuming enterprises plant and agricultural greenhouses etc) and public facilities to promote to form a distributed architectural PV systems. Choosing backbone network coverage area or load sets area using locally in all types of buildings and public facilities, the establishment of distributed PV systems, easing electricity shortages in parts of urban residents and farmers and herdsmen, and solve the problem of high energy-consuming enterprises producing electricity. Second, few in remote pastoral areas, Islands and other areas without electricity promotion, formation or micro-grid off-grid distributed PV power generation system. Due to the level of economic development for the reasons, some populations in remote areas still does not solve the basic electricity, works mostly in rural power grid large grid extends in the past, small-hydro, thermal and power grid extension is difficult and long power supply RADIUS and result in poor power quality. Development of off-grid distributed generation systems can solve not only at the lower end of grid electricity, basic electricity for residents of areas without electricity, you can also clean and efficient use of local renewable energy and effective solution of the contradiction between energy and environment.

Distributed building photovoltaic system

12. what locations suitable for installing distributed PV systems?

Answer: at present, our distributed PV systems, mainly concentrated in developed areas and electricity consumption are hard to public grid in remote areas of instability, is suitable for applications in the following sectors:

1) industrial plant: particularly in electricity consumption compared to the larger, power purchase price higher than factories, factory roof usually covers a large area, the roof open flat, suitable for mounting photovoltaic arrays; and because the load is large, distributed PV systems can be done in-place elimination, offset in part by the net purchase power, thus saving the user’s electricity;

2) commercial buildings: effect similar to the industrial park. Difference is that commercial construction for cement roof, more conducive to install photovoltaic arrays, but often have requirements for architectural aesthetics. According to shopping malls, office buildings, hotels, conference centers, resorts, and other characteristics of the services, user load is generally higher during the day, night-time low, perfectly matching photovoltaic characteristics;

3) agricultural facilities: the village has a large number of PV roof area available, including their own roofs, vegetables such as greenhouses, ponds, rural areas are often at the terminals of the public grid, it is difficult to ensure the distribution of electricity, and power quality is poorer, rural construction of distributed PV systems can improve the power protection and power quality;

4) municipal and other public buildings: due to standardize management, user load, and relatively reliable business conduct, installation is high, municipal and other public buildings but also for distributed PV focus on continuous construction;

5) in remote pastoral areas and Islands: because grid far away, China, Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan provinces in remote pastoral areas and the coastal Islands still have millions of radio people, off-grid PV system or with other energy micro-grid PV system is ideal for applications in these areas.

Distributed grid-connected PV system in education, telecommunications, petrochemical, transportation and military industries are widely used.

13. What is a building-integrated PV systems?

Answer: PV building refers to a building and installation of photovoltaic power systems. And architecture in grid-connected power generation is an important application of photovoltaic power generation, technology is progressing rapidly, mainly in combination with the construction of photovoltaic electrical installation and building design. According to the different installation methods integrated with building can be divided into photovoltaic building integration (or building integrated photovoltaics, Building Integrated PV is the name in English, is the ordinary BIPV) and photovoltaic building additional (Building Attached PV is English, abbreviations are BAPV). Is defined as follows:

BIPV: using a specially designed dedicated PV modules, instead of the original building material or building component during installation, and building integrated photovoltaic systems. Demolition of PV modules building cannot be used normally. PV modules not only to meet the functional requirements of photovoltaic power generation at the same time it must first meet basic functional requirements of the building, such as durable, insulated, waterproof, adequate strength and stiffness properties, common PV Watt photovoltaic curtain walls, ceiling, Windows and photovoltaic PV photovoltaic sunshade or awning.

BAPV: using common PV module, installed in the original building does not substitute materials or building elements, mounted directly onto the roof or attached to the walls of the PV system. PV modules on the demolition of the building, and will not affect the basic functions of the older buildings.

Photovoltaics and architecture have the following forms:

14. the photovoltaic array in the lateral façade installation and installed on the roof of buildings what is the difference?

Answer: the photovoltaic arrays and structures can be divided into a combination of roof and side façade is installed in two ways, it can be said that two kinds of installation suitable for most buildings.

Roof installations are mainly horizontal roof, sloping roofs and photovoltaic roof. Of which:

1) horizontal roof: horizontal roof, photovoltaic array can be installed according to the best angle to obtain maximum capacity; and can be used with conventional crystalline silicon photovoltaic module and reduce component cost, often relatively better economic. But the installation of aesthetics in General.

2) sloping roofs: in the northern hemisphere, due South, South East, South West, East or West sloping roofs can be used to install solar arrays. On the roof in the South to tilt, you can follow the best angles or near optimum angle, thereby gaining greater power; the conventional crystalline silicon PV module, good performance and low cost, so it is a good economy. Features a building and without a conflict, can be closely integrated with the roof, beautiful and good. Other direction (South), followed by the performance of the roof.

3) photovoltaic roof: refers to the transparent photovoltaic roof of building elements, beautiful and good, and meet the needs of light transmission. Photovoltaic roof needs a transparent component, module efficiency is low; in addition to power generation and transparency, a roof components to meet certain mechanical, architecture requirements such as aesthetics, structural connections, components high cost; power cost high; architectural promoted social value, and bring the Green effect.

Façade-mounted side facade installation mainly refers to the building’s southern wall, (for the northern hemisphere) PV modules installed on the East wall, the Western Wall. And high-rise buildings, walls is the largest area of contact with the Sun’s outer surface, vertical solar PV curtain wall curtain was used more commonly, an application form. According to design needs, you can use opaque, translucent and transparent glass, creating a different building facades and interior lighting effects. Double PV curtain wall, point-supported glass photovoltaic curtain wall and unit PV curtain wall is the more common form in photovoltaic curtain wall installation. Current high cost of components used in curtain wall installed photovoltaic system project construction schedule control and due to deviate from the optimal installation angle of the PV array, low output power. In addition to PV glass curtain wall, photovoltaic facades, photovoltaic façade the awning can also be installed.

Horizontal roof

Sloping roofs

Photovoltaic roof

Photovoltaic curtain wall

15. agricultural greenhouses, ponds you can install the distributed grid-connected PV system?

Answer: the greenhouse “warming up, holding” the key issues has always been a problem for farmers. “PV farm greenhouses”, is expected to solve the puzzle. Due to summer of high temperature, in 6 ~ September many category of vegetable cannot normal growth, and “PV agricultural big shed”, like in agricultural big shed appearance filled has a points light meter, can isolated infra-red, block too much of heat in big shed; in winter and night of when, is can block big shed within of infrared band of light to outside radiation, reduced night temperature fell of speed, up to insulation of role. “Solar PV farm shed” can supply power of agriculture greenhouse lighting, surplus electricity grid. In the form of off-grid “PV farm shed”, and LED systems deployed, blocking light and plant growth during the day, while power generation; the night LED systems use electricity generated during the day and lights.

In fish ponds can also set up photovoltaic arrays, can continue to fish in the pond, PV array can also provide good shelter for the fish, can resolve the development of new energy-and land-intensive conflicts. Therefore, agricultural greenhouse and ponds distributed PV systems can be installed.

Solar agricultural greenhouse

Solar ponds

Title III policy review

16. What is a “spontaneous, for personal use, residual Internet”?

Answer: the “spontaneous use, more than power” is a kind of distributed PV business models. For this operating mode, PV and outlets located in user load side of the meter, you need to add a PV reverse transmission measurement meter (table 2), or grid electricity meter (table 3) set to bi-directional measurement. User’s own direct use of solar power, to save on electricity bills to enjoy directly the power grid’s sale price against sending electricity measurement alone and settled to set feed-in tariff, in accordance with current domestic policies, according to the local power grid enterprises benchmark desulfurization of coal-fired electricity price to buy photovoltaic electricity. In this case, the PV users should as far as possible all PV power, for personal use, otherwise the value of electricity fed into the grid than personal use value of the PV electricity.

“Consumer policy” schematic and wiring diagram

After 2010, the PV cost decline, European photovoltaic electricity prices generally fell to below 20 euro cents per kWh, while European grid universal 20 LFAT retail electricity price 25 euro cents per kWh, PV into the “parity” era. In 2011, Germany introduced a “consumer” policy, namely “spontaneously occupied, more than power” policy to encourage PV users spontaneously occupied, power companies to buy surplus State PV feed-in tariff published grid capacity. In 2012, Germany the photovoltaic feed-in tariff (13 LFAT 19 euro cents per kWh) are significantly lower than the retail pricing of power grid (25 euro cents per kWh), PV users “spontaneous personal use” PV power efficiency, since the rapidly expanding consumer market, according to the statistics, 2012 Germany PV market one-third belongs to “spontaneous use, more than power” market.

Germany “consume” the advantages: “spontaneous use” solar PV electricity offset the electricity grid, no deal, the State has paid price subsidies, saving state funds, promoting technological progress and the transformation of distribution network side effects.

Germany “consumption” and “policy flaws:” spontaneous personal use “solar power reduce the turnover of power grid enterprises; reverse transmission capacity (more power) need transactions, increasing transaction costs; many small users unable to power grid enterprises invoiced against transmission in trading operations, Commerce and taxation issues need to be addressed.

17. “spontaneous personal use” capacity and “allowance Internet”: electricity subsidies in the same way?

Answer: the current national policy of distributed PV “unit charge fixed subsidies” approach, which subsidize the entire generation of photovoltaic systems are, so whether it is “voluntary personal use” power is “residual Internet” electricity subsidies according to the same standard.

18. What is the PV benchmark pricing policy?

Answer: “PV benchmark price” policy is based on the current cost of photovoltaic power generation, electricity prices in developed after taking into account a reasonable profit, PV project developers to the price of photovoltaic electricity sold to the grid companies, among them, higher part of desulphurization unit in the local feed-in tariff that exceeds “network-wide assessment” approach to cover the grid companies. At present, our policy only for high-voltage side

Large power stations with Internet access “tariff” means to cover. For user-side Internet distributed PV is used as output fixed subsidy system. In some countries “tariff” policy not only applies to large PV power plants, but also to distributed PV systems. “Internet pricing” policies in distributed solar PV system technical characteristics are as follows:

1) PV systems and networks and generating electricity metering meters (Figure 5) is installed on the user outside of the meter, and dot on the grid side;

2) PV power fed into the low-voltage public distribution network all;

3) power companies based on photovoltaic power “tariff” full purchase of photovoltaic power, billed monthly;

4) users to take power from the grid is the same as when not equipped with photovoltaic systems, according to meter fee.

“Internet pricing” method of grid-connected PV system connection diagram

“Internet pricing” policy was widely adopted policies of European countries prior to 2011. In 2000, Germany spearheaded the “tariff” method, the implementation of this policy greatly boosted Germany domestic PV market, consecutive years of PV power installation ranked first in the world. After Germany zhī hòu, other European countries have started to implement the “tariff” method, which makes the whole Europe’s PV market has grown rapidly, in 2007 and 2008, the European Photovoltaic market accounted for 80% of the world photovoltaic market. “Internet electric price” policy of advantages: power and electricity separate, guarantee has PV power of full acquisition; not exists power period and load not match of problem; regardless of himself construction also is developers construction, are is with grid Enterprise signed sale purchased electric contract (PPA), proceeds transparent, has guarantees, developers easy intervention; user electricity all payment, not effects grid enterprise of turnover; grid Enterprise only bear desulfurization benchmark electric price part, post by national fill, grid enterprise not by loss; all power are after normal trading, No loss of State tax revenue.

“Internet electric price” policy of shortcomings: with large PV station of commercial mode as, national subsidies desulfurization benchmark electric price on of post, needs paid more of funds; regardless of size customer, are to and grid Enterprise signed PPA, increased has trading cost; many small user cannot for grid enterprise development votes, operation shàng needs solution business and tax, problem; needs through reasonable effective of multi restricted mechanism, to formed can for public supervision of power market.

19. What is the unit of electricity fixed subsidies?

Answer: “unit of electricity fixed subsidy” policy referred to as “power subsidy policy” is in accordance with the supplement to send power to the PV system, as opposed to “investment.” Distributed power generation using electricity subsidies, which is characterized by “spontaneous use, and power”, that is, spontaneous use of photovoltaic power have no deal, States, in accordance with their own use of electricity subsidized, surplus electricity in addition to the desulphurization power price of grid enterprises to pay, but also enjoys State subsidies.

20. distributed solar power subsidies are identical in the different areas?

Answer: encourage power consumers, enterprises, professional contract as projects such as energy service companies, and individual units to invest in and operate distributed solar power projects. For distributed solar power, current and fixed with any distributed solar power subsidies, photovoltaic electricity benefits directly the impact of household electricity prices. Commercial and industrial electricity prices 0.8 LFAT 1.4 Yuan per kWh, large industrial power tariff 0.6 LFAT 0.8 yuan per kWh, utilities 0.5 LFAT 0.6 Yuan per kWh in electricity prices, government buildings, schools, hospitals and other public services, agriculture, and residential electricity consumption is only 0.3 LFAT 0.5 Yuan per kWh. Therefore, the unit of electricity installed in different buildings for different fixed subsidies distributed PV projects or power gains are different, it takes developers to judge for yourself, and decide whether the project is cost-effective.

21. on distributed photovoltaic-related policies should ask which Department?

Answer: about distributed photovoltaic-related energy policies should consult with municipal or county level authorities. Energy Administration Department under the State Council encouraged the municipal or county level energy departments of the local reality, establishment and application for grid access and network debugging and acceptance, a combination of tariffs and subsidies and settlement, distributed PV project record, completion of a one-stop service system, simplifying procedures, improving management efficiency.

22. how users access to national electricity subsidies?

Answer: network enterprise is responsible for directing and coordinating with project units to carry out parallel operation between distributed PV project commissioning and acceptance, purchasing and selling contracts with project units. Grid enterprise distributed PV projects of all generating capacity and electricity separately.

For distributed solar power projects on electricity subsidies. Power grid enterprises shall, in accordance with regulations of the State units clearing the project electricity and electricity price of electricity, and electricity subsidies in accordance with national policies, transfer to full generating capacity of the project to the project on a monthly State subsidy funds.

23. how distributed solar power subsidies paid to property owners?

A: users purchase electricity from the grid to perform normal electricity price policies, excess solar electricity grid from grid companies by local desulfurized coal-fired thermal power bar power purchase price.

Distributed PV generation corresponds to the electricity generated by the project to meet the project requirements for power users, utilities must assume supply responsibilities like ordinary electricity consumers.

Photovoltaic power generation project by the power of custom-building, contract energy management style may be used.

Energy contract management of enterprises and consumers in accordance with State provisions on contract energy management, energy services agreement signed. Custom-building solar photovoltaic power systems for personal use is not making a deal, for project owners to install PV on roofs in other power users for personal use of power, by project owners and consumers in accordance with energy management contract agreements for settlement. PV system capacity, excess solar electricity, the grid companies are responsible for measurement, statistics, PV systems take national electricity fixed electricity subsidies. Of measurement data based on photovoltaic power grid enterprises in accordance with the national electricity subsidy standard in accordance with the billing cycle funds transferred State subsidies.

24. the national energy policies on the expansion of distributed PV systems has affected?

Answer: July 7, 2012, National Energy Council released “solar power development Twelve-Five planning” (country can new can (2012) 194th,), proposed priority using building roof construction distributed PV power system, achieved concentrated development, dispersed development and distributed using common development; September 14, 2012, National Energy Council released “National Energy Council on declared distributed PV power scale application demonstration district of notification” (country can new can (2012) No. 298,), Plans in national promotion distributed PV power 15GW;2013 years February 27, national grid held press conference, to social released on do distributed power grid service work of views, solution has distributed PV grid difficult of problem; February 2013 national NDRC price Division external released “on perfect PV power price policy of notification” (sought views draft), proposed has PV power according to resources partition of Internet electric price and for distributed PV power of subsidies standard of preliminary views ; July 4, 2013, State released “on promoting PV industry health development of several views” (country sent (2013) 24th,), commonly known as “country eight article”, special proposed vigorously pioneering distributed PV power market; July 18, 2013, national NDRC issued distributed power management provisional approach, provides has distributed power of project planning, project management, grid access and policy guarantees of related principles; July 24, 2013, Treasury released ” Imposed on distributed PV electricity subsidies policy notification on the relevant issues, such as “(wealth building (2013) No. 390), defined the principles for distributed solar power subsidies and subsidies have principles, eliminating the project developers worry about subsidies owed to worry about. August 2013, the National Energy Board recently announced the first list of distributed PV demonstration area which lists 7 5 municipalities and involved a total of 18 demonstration zone project. This series of distributed PV policy introduced PV distributed at subsidized prices, and subsequent financial support policy promulgated a policy such as, clearly the strategic position of PV, development direction and application of the scale, solves the subsidy standards of distributed PV, grid access, and key issues such as funding, will contribute significantly to the promotion of distributed PV market in China. September 2014, the National Energy Board issued the notice on further implementation of distributed photovoltaic-related policies, and the State Council on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry opinions ([2013]24) was released, actively formulate policies and implement programmes in various regions, a powerful impetus to distributed PV generation in many ways in many fields, showed a good momentum of development. But all regions have varying degrees of policy has not been fully implemented, problems such as lack of matching measures, the imperfect working mechanisms. To crack the key constraints of distributed PV applications, vigorously promote photovoltaic diversified development, speed up expanding PV market size is now on further implementation of distributed photovoltaic-related policies. March 2015, the National Department of energy transmitted by water power profit planning and designing Institute of the photovoltaic pilot programming outline for poverty alleviation (revised draft), continued to promote this is to and perfecting solar progress in poverty alleviation work, for the production of photovoltaic reference implementation for poverty alleviation programmes for poverty alleviation.

Fourth project management articles

25. how to manage distributed PV projects?

Answer: the energy Administration Department under the State Council is responsible for national planning guidance and supervision management of distributed PV; local energy authorities under the guidance of the State Council Department in charge of energy, responsible for the construction of distributed solar power projects in the region and oversee management; commissioned National Solar photovoltaic centralized management unit, information and quality control work.

26. why distributed solar power projects need to record? Do not need any State subsidy project construction can begin?

Answer: at this stage still need State subsidies distributed PV, assuming annual 5GW installed distributed PV annual generating capacity of at least 6 billion kWh, 0.42 Yuan per kWh if the subsidy is required of 2.52 billion yuan. In order to optimize the allocation of subsidies, the record is a must. Distributed solar energy power generation project by the municipal or county level competent energy management implementation for the record. If the project does not need State subsidies, can then started directly after the introduction of record management.

27. distributed PV projects how to record, what material should be prepared?

A: item unit to a municipal or county-level energy Department of fixed assets investment application form application form and distributed solar power projects, should include the following materials:

1) in accordance with relevant provisions, buildings and installation of photovoltaic power generation system project;

2) land or roofs and other sites using certificates;

3) issued by the municipal or county level grid project grid access;

4) if the project is introducing energy management contract, you will need to provide energy services management contract with power users and other materials

5) other materials requested by local governments in accordance with the relevant provisions.

28. a filing failure or failure which may occur?

A: city-or county-level energy departments in dealing with projects completed within 10 working days from the date of filing the application record audits and audit opinion to project unit. When a proposed project when the cumulative size exceeded the district’s annual guide, local energy management shall publish a notice, stop accepting the project application. Within the validity of distributed solar power projects for the record, if there are no special reasons were not completed and put into operation, project record file is automatically invalidated.

29. the project also filed application to change it? How do you change it?

Answer: the project normally record cannot be changed at will. If special circumstances encountered during project implementation, you must change the original scenario, you must follow the procedures for application for change.

30. an individual (family) distributed PV systems installed how do you define it? Is there any preferential policy?

Answer: encourage power consumers, enterprises, professional contract as projects such as energy service companies, and individual units to invest in and operate distributed solar power projects. Personal (family) installation of distributed PV projects in principle “spontaneously, for personal use, power grid regulate supply and demand”, which use solar power to automatically offset grid electricity, does not engage in transactions with redundant Internet photovoltaic power grid company benchmark by local desulfurized coal-fired electricity price buy. Personal (family) as a project construction of distributed PV facilities, in principle, the size of individual projects is less than 30-kilowatt, the provincial Department in charge of energy depending on the circumstances, to simplify project management.

Fifth article design and install article

31. the distributed grid-connected PV system is made up of how many parts?

Answer: the distributed grid-connected photovoltaic system consists of photovoltaic modules, inverters, mounts and cable, combiner box, AC and DC distribution cabinets and control systems and other components. Combiner box, AC and DC distribution cabinets according to the actual situation and the monitoring system installed.

China’s future is expected to be above the dome to build solar power station

Polaris solar PV net news: in order to eliminate smog caused by fossil fuel combustion, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, solve the energy crisis, several space experts suggested that China should be closer to 36,000 kilometers above geosynchronous orbit to build solar power plants.

Once implemented, this will far exceed the “Apollo” size of the Moon and the international space station, as man’s most ambitious since entering the space age space project.

Space solar power station, also known as space station refers to very large spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, installed on its huge solar panels or lasers, will be produced by microwave or laser energy transferred by means of wireless energy transmission to the ground.

United States science fiction writer Asimov once described in a novel space station. “Two bombs and one satellite” meritorious scientist, academician, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Astronautics Wang Xiji believes that this has some theoretical basis in fact.

United States scientist Peter ˙ Glazer published an article in the journal Science in 1968 and put forward feasible concepts for space solar power station scheme.

As an active proponent of the space station, Wang Xiji has engaged in more than half a century of space technology research said: “space station with commercial value will be very large indeed, and its solar panel area will reach five or six square kilometers, equivalent to about 12 times the size of the square. ”

“Maybe people can see it in the night sky, like a star. ”

On the shape of the space station, national researchers have proposed dozens of ideas such as square, circular, Bowl-shaped.

Why power stations built into space?

Wang Xiji says solar power plants on the ground day and night and the weather-affected, power supply fluctuations are too big, difficult as the main power station. And space station not subject day and night and the effect of weather, solar energy utilization efficiency is greatly improved. In the geosynchronous orbit, more than 99% can receive the full solar radiation.

Academician of Chinese Academy of engineering, electro-mechanical engineer expert Duan Baoyan said, space power plant generating capacity per unit area is on the ground for 10 times. “Once we conquer space solar power station technology, it is expected to gradually solve the energy crisis of human society. ”

Seeking new clean-energy alternatives to fossil fuels has become a worldwide consensus. However, solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy instability or limited issues such as total energy, it is difficult to replace fossil fuels.

Wang Xiji said that in the future, controllable nuclear fusion and space solar power is most likely to be access to an inexhaustible clean energy. In comparison, application of controlled nuclear fusion to more distant because of its scientific theory has yet to be fully resolved. Space solar power is completely feasible in theory, although there are a lot of technical problems, but are able to solve.

He said that as the cost of fossil fuels on the planet can no longer sustain human development, there would have been panic in the world. “Who will master the key technology of the space station first, who can occupy the future energy market. Development of space power station is of strategic importance. ”

In recent years, the United States, Japan, Russia and other countries to carry out a study on space solar power. Chinese scientific research institutions have in the space station’s systems verification and key technical aspects of work. In 2010, the number of academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of engineering have made the space solar power station technology development and countermeasure study of the report, it is recommended that by 2030 China build a megawatt-class space station by 2050, 1 million-kilowatt-class space station to build commercially viable.

However, building an ambitious space station will not be easy, and some key technology has yet to be a breakthrough.

For example, 1 million-kilowatt-level power stations with a total weight of up to tens of tons of magnitude. Low Earth orbit human launch vehicle carrying capacity rarely exceeds 100 tons.

“We need a common, inexpensive heavy launch vehicle. “Designing China’s first space rocket, Wang Xiji said.

“We must put the space station’s solar panels did very thin and very light, weighing not more than 200 g per square meter. “Wang Xiji said,” we have to break through the efficient wireless energy transfer and transmission technologies. Only wireless power conversion and transmission efficiencies of around 50%, the space station only has commercial value. ”

Despite the many difficulties it faced, the pioneer of Chinese space technology for building a space station, China is full of confidence. “In this field, China’s and the world’s advanced level by much. ”

“XI Jinping, Secretary-General said at last year’s Conference of the academicians of, is China concentrate on magic, the magic cannot be lost. This makes us more confident. When ‘ two bombs and one satellite, ‘ lean is the magic. As long as China can resolve to building a space station, using magic to focus on doing big things, and act according to the objective law, China might become a country that built the space station. “Wang Xiji,” said space station State would soon be included in major national projects to take every opportunity to carry out related work. ”

Vice President of the China Academy of space technology, Li ming said: “next 5 years or so, China will build a space station, it will offer great opportunities for development of the space station. “Station of the large structure, Assembly, maintenance, and other technologies can be used for development of the space station; validation of key technologies of space station space station can be undertaken while on-orbit servicing capability of the space station and the astronauts will be able to support the construction of the space station.

He said that China’s rocket launch capability is growing, a new generation of heavy carrier rocket is expected to carry out research.

Wang Xiji said that when space solar energy development is the human primary energy, “people no longer have to worry about smog, the problem of global warming will be fundamentally resolved”.

“To say that wireless energy transfer, a technique that was the remarkable changes. This technology has been applied, use electricity without the need for wires, charging your phone no longer plug. Imagine what kind of world. “The 93-year old aerospace experts said with a laugh.

Original title: China’s future is expected to be above the dome to build space station

Quest’s largest solar-powered aircraft: why grace not to temperature?

Polaris solar PV net news: flying planes full of dreams in the Sun, but how is solar driven air? The appearance of such a large, how people can have such a devilish charm of weight? Flying at an altitude of 8500 m, why should be have to grace not temperature?

Secrets that only we know.

Solar: in the sky, huanyu with you, accompany you for a ride

It is well known that solar energy is a renewable, clean energy. In everyday life, solar energy to produce heat or electricity, depending on solar energy use. When the Sun’s rays into heat (such as boiling water or home heating), is what we call the thermal solar energy, and when the Sun’s rays into energy is then converted to electricity, we call it thermal solar energy. “Shinin” aircraft using of solar energy comes from the Sun’s rays are photovoltaic cells (solar panels) capture and electricity to the grid, photovoltaic solar energy that appears.

Solar panels: romantic hug you if sunset

If we say that the aircraft the process of capturing solar energy, is like experiencing a comfortable “sunbathing”. Made of photovoltaic solar panels, is actually a “collector of energy.” The Solar Impulse flight powered by solar power during the day, but it had to rely on batteries at night. Panels the greater, the more electricity produced. Sunlight, consume large amounts of electricity, power 2nd, 17248 photovoltaic tiles directly on the wing. About 270 square meters (2900 square feet) of solar panels, daily absorption 340-kilowatt of solar energy. They will convert the Sun’s rays into electricity, supply power to aircraft engines, and to charge the flight battery. It is worth mentioning that, form a solar panel batteries are designed to be very thin, each battery only 135 µm thick, thinner than a human hair.

Carbon fiber: most gentle care, waiting for warm

“Shinin 2nd” gigantic wingspan up to 72 metres, wider than a Boeing 747. However, weighing 2.3 tons, equivalent to the weight of a car. So what this behemoth, is how to achieve weight loss? “Shinin 2nd” is used in the overall structure of the 80% carbon fiber material honeycomb, carbon fibre will be lighter, weighing only 25 grams per cubic meter, one-third of the density of plain paper. But its strength was sufficient to meet the mission requirements, at the same time, thanks to the excellent thermal insulation effect of carbon fiber materials. Even when flying at an altitude of up to 8500 feet, temperature decreasing with height in líng xià 30℃. “Wear” this body made of honeycombed carbon fibre materials “clothes” and “Sun power 2nd number” remarkably well against high altitude cold. By extensive use of carbon fibre as a substitute heating equipment. Also saves more power in the aircraft during the flight.

Original title: Quest’s largest solar-powered aircraft: why grace not to temperature?

Combined PV annual transfer profit earned 370 million Yuan a final card

Polaris solar PV net news: combined PV announced results for the year as of the end of last year showed that recorded turn profit earned 367 million Yuan, Eclipse 2.305 billion yuan from a year earlier; basic earnings per share from continuing operations of 15.15 cents; not a final card.

Period, the revenue (including price adjustment) 524 million Yuan, annual increase of 12.9 times times.

Companies, improved performance from continuing operations this year, mainly due to the acquisition in 2013 solar power plant generating capacity increased group electricity was recorded 2.6 times to 126300 bought 6 has been successfully built and grid-connected solar power station, with a total capacity of 310 MW. The solar power stations this year to about 318,000 MW hours of electricity production, and so on.

Original title: combined PV annual transfer profit earned 370 million Yuan a final card

Evergrande real estate gave up solar investment plan

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, evergrande real estate announced that after the market research, the company has abandoned plans to invest in solar energy, did not invest any money in the business, because the company considered that the time was not ripe.

However, the company will continue to invest in infant formula and other diversified businesses.

Evergrande real estate said in October last year, intended to hide groups and United States solar Solar Power investments.

Related reading:

Constant new energy prices did not go up backdoor plan change

Tibetan group evergrande and SPI to develop photovoltaic solar power plans fell through

Evergrande real estate aspirations into the PV “behind”

Original title: evergrande real estate gave up solar investment plan

Ze-too electric new powers to prosecute involving inverter with four patent infringement

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, Suzhou city, new energy technology limited, told reporters, in view of the protection of intellectual property rights and the property rights of the patent owner to maintain, the company proposed Shandong Okuta Electric Co will be prosecuted soon. At present lawyer letters have been sent to Shandong Okuta.

Suzhou Ze all new energy technology limited related head said, Shandong Austrian too electrical limited is to welding machine for main of a company, its production sales of HF isolation type grid inverse variable device serious violations has Jiangsu Ze all new energy technology limited has of the series authorized of invention patent, both violations has Ze all new energy has of invention patent “HF isolation type grid inverse variable device” four a right requirements content: topology structure same violations has right requirements 1 , Transformer power tubes on the front of the action in the same way infringed claim 2; back-end of the transformer power moves in the same way a violation of claim 3; in the control module using the same chip infringed claim 4. For violations, Ze all the new energy that has been formed in a civil lawsuit.

National development and Reform Commission and the State Energy Board on improving electricity regulation promotes clean energy multiple full guidance

Arctic star solar PV network news: Beijing city, and Hebei province, and Jiangxi province, and Henan province, and Shaanxi Province, and Tibet Autonomous region development reform Board, each province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities by letter Board (workers letter Board, and workers letter Office, and economic and Trade Commission, and Commission), National Energy Council sent institutions, China power Enterprise Federation, national grid company, and China South grid limited responsibility company, China China can group, and China Datang group, and China China electric group, and China country electric group, and China power investment group, and Shenhua, China three gorges project Corporation, limited liability company, the State development and Investment Corporation:

To implement the Central Finance and Economics leading group at its sixth meeting and the first meeting of the National Energy Commission to deploy, implement the Party Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening reform of the electric power several opinions ([2015]9 number) requests, improving electricity regulation is hereby made, promote sustainable and healthy development of clean energy, offer the following guidance:

, Overall annual electric power and energy balance, actively promoting clean energy to dissolve

(A) provincial (district, municipal) Government organizations when preparing its annual programme of electric power and energy balance in the region, should adopt measures for the implementation of renewable energy generation in full security system, on the premise of protection of power system security and stability, full arrangements for renewable energy generation.

(B) in preparing their annual power generation plans, priority reservations and hydropower, wind power, solar power and other clean energy generation space; encouraging clean energy generation to participate in the market, has been determined by direct methods of trading and other market-oriented power, can be deducted from the schedule. For similar different clean energy production in the same area, in the reserved space should be fair and impartial. Wind power, solar power, biomass power generation according to the region’s resource conditions full arrangements; hydro-balance resources and historical averages to determine electricity; nuclear power in ensuring a safe balance between peak-need to schedule generation gas turbine based on heating, peaking and balancing the need to determine the capacity. Coal-fired power unit further increase the intensity of different power plan to ensure an efficient and energy saving and environmental protection unit of utilization hours than other coal-fired power units, and may increase emissions of air pollutants within a specified period of concentrations near or at the coal-fired generating units using gas turbine generator sets emission limit values in hours.

(C) provincial (district, municipal) Government departments in integrated and balanced annual electricity power, added electricity demand clean energy generation, in principle, give priority to arrangements and eliminate areas of clean energy, and more incentives for clean energy and peak coal for power generation.

(D) energy resource-rich area, installed a larger proportion of clean energy in the integrated and balanced annual electricity power, added electricity demand such as unable to meet clean-energy multiple full output, should be market-oriented, encouraging clean energy a priority deal with customers, and fully tap the potential power in the region, dissolve the maximum clean-energy.

(E) the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and smaller proportion of clean energy in the integrated and balanced annual electricity power, added electricity demand to meet clean-energy to dissolve, and unequivocally accept the transmission out and gradually increase the proportion of clean energy, promoting air quality improvements.

(F) the Government Department in charge of the Organization of State grid Corporation, China Southern power grid companies send annual inter-provincial incoming plan, should be the effective implementation of the national energy strategy and policy, making full use of existing power transmission channels, increase scheduling flexibility, and consider supporting power and clean energy, and prioritize the utilization of clean energy and clear transmission ratio, improve the stability and security of transmission. For different similar clean energy production in the same area, in the send schedule should be fair and equitable.

(VII) across provinces send electricity and manpower in electric power supply and demand, transmission and channel capacity, fully independent consultation to determine annual sending electricity plan to maximize clean energy out and dissolve, to avoid water, desert wind, abandon light. Unable to reach a consensus through consultation, coordinated by the national development and Reform Commission to determine and coordinate the results copied to the National Energy Board.

(H) the national development and Reform Commission, in conjunction with provincial (district, municipal) Government authorities, electricity companies, in accordance with the requirements of decentralization and standardize administrative procedures for examination and approval, and sound power supply plan made by the provincial and inter-provincial power planning consultation mechanism. Annual power generation of the provincial plan, across provinces send electricity annually submitted to the national development and Reform Commission before filing in the first quarter. After filing of annual power generation plans, across provinces send electricity into provinces (regions and municipalities), electric power and energy balance, power grid enterprises are responsible for organization and implementation.

And second, strengthening the day-to-day operation, making full use of benefit compensation mechanism for clean energy market space

(IX) provincial (district, municipal) Government authorities in determining the annual power generation planning and inter-provincial sent electricity plan, electricity purchase electricity for sale should be made accordingly in consultation, and alternative power generation (generation rights trade), auxiliary services such as market mechanisms, achieve benefits of different types of power supply regulation, prone to promote clean energy. Areas with appropriate conditions, can be implemented across provinces.

(J) improve the peak load compensation mechanism should be established, increase the intensity of peak load compensation, encourage the adoption of market-oriented ways to determine peak shoulder to encourage clean energy direct purchase of services. For coal-fired power units in order to avoid water, desert wind, depth peak, or abandon the light unit starts and stops should be rewarded through such means as increased generating capacity, electricity needed in the annual energy plan integrated and taken into account in the arrangements, year-end closing.

(11) the renewable eliminate difficult areas, through market-oriented economic incentive compensation mechanism of coal consumed in peak. Peak depth not reached average peak rate, without compensation; peaking at depths greater than average peak rate, be progressive compensation programs on/off peak-be lump-sum compensation. To compensate for the expense of renewable energy and coal-fired power units according to the extent of the benefit be assessed accordingly. Compensation and cost-sharing should be balanced.

(12) the hydropower installed capacity weighting area should develop hydro power generation mechanism for each other. On the premise of explicit minimum start-up mode of coal-fired power units, organized for alternate power generation hydroelectric, coal-fired power units, in order to protect hydro-prone coal turbine from full and reduced to compensate. Power increase, compensation should be mainly used in coal-fired power units. And may try to cascade Valley cold standby compensation, compensation, stock exchange and other ways to achieve the interests of different power generation main adjustment.

(13) the provincial (district, municipal) Government Department shall, in conjunction with the appropriate energy regulatory agencies, combined with operating experience and the situation of supply and demand, reexamined the coal turbine (including heat) the minimum technical effort and start-up mode, continuous research and exploration of hydropower, wind power, solar power and coal-fired electricity (including electric), joint operation and optimum operation.

(14) improve inter-provincial sent interest adjustment mechanism. Across provinces sent by electric agreement has by national coordination clear price of should follow Executive, market mechanism compared perfect of also can by sent by electric both according to actual run situation, according to risk total Dan, and interests shared principles all or part again consultations determines, and will consultations results submitted national development reform Board and national energy Council; national not clear price of, by sent by electric both consultations determines transmission price and power.

(15) the provincial (district, municipal) Government authorities should co-operate with the relevant authorities to regularly publish generating assessment results, timely public release power system information and regulation parameters and other information. Energy regulators should be on a monthly basis to the provincial (district, municipal) Government departments informed of support services management and operation management of data.

Third, enhance power demand side management and peak load by moving to clean energy to create favourable conditions

(16) the provincial (district, municipal) Government departments should enhance power demand side management to encourage users optimum power load characteristics, participate in peak FM, increasing peak-Valley electricity price difference, by means of price guide peak load shifting, ease peak-power generation-side pressure, promotes elimination on clean energy.

(17) provincial (district, municipal) Government departments to speed up the development and construction of electric power demand side management platform, promotion of online monitoring, help users to achieve power refinement, provide technical support to reduce the power difference between peak and Valley.

(18) provincial (district, municipal) competent government departments should actively try to demand response pilot project, supported by online monitoring and Internet technology, integrated use of subsidy policy, price policy, users of active load-shedding during peak economic compensation, or through direct trade and clean energy compensation.

(19), provincial (district, municipal) Government departments should study complementary policies, innovative thinking, and urged the implementation of grid-connected distributed generation grid enterprises policy led grid enterprises to absorb more distributed generation.

(20) encourage qualified areas of thermal power unit thermal storage technology, low power heating pilot.

Four, strengthen mutual coordination and supervision and management, and ensure the full output of clean energy policies to the letter

(21) the clean-energy grid-connected power generation enterprise should meet the technical requirements, contribute to improving prediction accuracy, strengthen production operation management and improve power quality and ease pressure on stable operation of power network.

(22) the power enterprises should be consolidated under the responsibility of a clean energy generation forecast and scientific arrangement unit, fully tapping the potential of system peak load, adjust the spinning reserve, on the premise of ensuring the safe operation of the power grid, promote clean energy a priority Internet access, implement fully guaranteeing the purchasing of renewable, speeding up ad network reconstruction of transmission lines, improve ability to attract renewable energy. Conditional power grids, scheduling pilot clean energy priorities, which aim to maximize absorptive kWh of clean energy, optimal scheduling, flexible operating reserve capacity.

(23) power enterprises should strengthen clean energy transmission channel in regions rich in construction, development of smart grid technologies, improved clean energy grid conditions, expanding the scope of resource allocation.

(24), provincial (district, municipal) Government Department shall, in conjunction with the appropriate energy regulatory bodies, strengthening electric power dispatching and the supervision of power operation and annual power generation plans, organizations regularly informed of electric power information, coordinate clean energy grid and run contradictory to ensure clean energy.

(25) to renewable energy regulators monitor full Internet access, not full Internet access, the reasons should be identified, and clarify lines of responsibility, urging related parties rectify.

The national development and Reform Commission

National Energy Board

On March 20, 2015

Original title: national development and Reform Commission and the State Energy Board on improving electricity regulation promotes clean energy multiple full guidance

Solar-powered aircraft: dream sailing

Polaris solar PV net news: March 11, 2015, a wingspan up to 72 m mega aircraft from the U.A.E. capital of Abu Dhabi took off, ushering in a flight around the world tour lasted 2 months.

The meaning of this flight is unusual. This aircraft, named “Sun power 2nd” behemoth, is the only one without the use of fossil fuels, relying on solar energy for round the clock flight of the aircraft.

However, both flight speed, load and the driving environment, “Sun power 2nd” appears to be back on the turn of the century standards of the aircraft had just been invented, so that people’s dreams for the commercialization of solar-powered aircraft, was again removed.

Clean energy carrier of the desire as human beings, “Sun power 2nd” does at least prove the possibility of solar-powered aircraft. This journey has meaning, is not so much the technology breakthrough, people’s best wishes than a sublimation.

Slow and arduous flight

If the weather permits, “Sun power, 2nd” on the way to stops in 12 cities, including Chongqing and Nanjing. However, compared with the first human flight, plans to take 2 months of “Sun power 2nd number” appears to be very slow.

In 1929, Germany “, count Zeppelin” airship completed its first flight around the world, took 21 days, 7 hours, 26 minutes. “Shinin 2nd” compared with the airship a century ago, about 1 time slower times. Today, the fastest X-43 in the world, had reached 11,500 kilometers per hour, according to the speed, fly around the world in just 4 hours to complete.

Remove commercials, “Sun power 2nd” slow, low Trac is an important reason.

“Shinin 2nd” weighs 2.3 tons, used 4 propeller motor voltage 17.5V, the quality of more than 2 tons, most of the skeleton comes from solar panels and lithium-ion battery pack and other powertrain components, load only enough to add a driver.

This state of affairs since the early 80 ‘s since the invention of the first solar-powered aircraft has not changed too much.

First manned solar plane the “solar challenger”, but also single-seaters. Although covered with the wings of more than 16,000 solar panels under ideal lighting conditions, providing 2500 Watts of power. But the aircraft’s weight and speed is very low, and forced to fly during the day.

With the promotion of solar panel technology, and the emergence of high energy battery pack. People began asking design of high altitude, low speed remote control of an unmanned solar-powered aircraft: the flight made radiant energy from the Sun during the day try to climb, and excess energy stored in batteries, night-time use of highly half-gliding flight and battery.

“Shinin 2nd” according to this approach to design and build it. In order to maintain “shinin 2nd” ability to fly during the night, the plane carrying 633 kg battery pack. But battery is not able to maintain flying speed, at night “shinin 2nd” is half-gliding, flight altitude from the day more than 9,000 meters, dropped to 1500 meters at night.

Very limited energy are obviously not as comfortable as the cockpit driving environment. When flying a large temperature difference between day and night temperatures up to 30 degrees during the day, and the night may be down to-30 degrees Celsius. Drivers need to rely on special protective clothes to keep warm.

In addition, the “Sun power 2nd” cabin volume is only 3.8 cubic meters, can only accommodate one person. Because the space is small, engineers deliberately designed with flat flight seats for pilot rest, seat with a toilet installation, solve the problem of pilots go to the toilet.

And because “Sun power 2nd” automatic driving system can work continuously for 20 minutes, so drivers had to change your sleep habits. Sleep 8 hours a day, replaced sleeps 10 times a day for 20 minutes at a time.

After 5 days in a row in such a way, the pilot must land to rest. “Shinin 2nd” will replace another pilot continued on his way.

This harsh driving conditions like last century, people had to admire “shinin 2nd” driver.

Aviation industry minority

Complex types compared feature of conventionally powered aircraft solar plane definitely counts as minorities of the aviation sector, which is one of the few. “Shinin 2nd” world tour has been proceeding smoothly. But at the beginning of the scheme, is not viewed unfavourably by a significant sector of the aviation community.

“Shinin” CEO, “Sun power 2nd” engineers and a substitute driver Andrey ˙ Mr Borschberg told the media that, 12 years ago, when he started a solar-powered aircraft project, the “solar impulse” idea told Switzerland airlines, but got no answer, “they think is impossible to build such a plane. “

Not to be discouraged and decided to set up their own team of Andrea design aircraft, despite the 140-person aviation man of the team, few, but they still made the flight “Sun power 2nd number”.

Although manned solar plane to fly, but according to the Sun power company envisages, the real solar power for commercial flights, need to address the utility of solar panels. If we can resolve, after more than 40 years, fully solar-powered aircraft can carry 300 passengers is expected to formally put into operation.

But for now released “shinin 2nd” Panel data, 22% photoelectric conversion rate is already higher than ordinary poly solar panel 12% conversion rate. But the problem is, even if the conversion rate increased to 40%, motor traction I’m afraid it is too difficult and early piston engine.

Andre also said the significance of solar-powered aircraft now in addition to passing clean energy concept, is more instead of expensive satellites, so that “Sun power 2nd” flight of the solar-powered aircraft around the clock, up to the stratosphere, become a transmitter station.

The idea was also put forward in the past, but rarely implemented. Because the high cost of satellite, but a static-orbit communications satellites can cover a global 40% of the area, have the ability to launch a satellite country, are less likely to consider solar-powered aircraft that are not very secure communication scheme.

The future, with the UAV industry development based on solar-powered unmanned aircraft may enter a particular field of technology. But before resolving power and battery life issues, manned solar plane to commercialization, there is no small challenge.

Original title: solar-powered aircraft: dream sailing

Fertile soil into PV power station in Jiangxi province to invest this year installed capacity kW

Polaris solar PV net news: Hou Tian Xiang in Xinjian County of two hills, soon to be dressed as “Sun Mountain”. On March 22, the reporter was informed that a new energy company will invest 320 million Yuan, the construction of two solar power stations, with a total installed capacity of 38 MW, annual output of around 38 million. It is just many of our province are mulling construction of a photovoltaic power station, it is reported, according to the National Energy Board issued the PV implementation programmes, this year the province will add scale PV power station 600,000-kilowatt.

Constrained by factors such as land, construction of the PV power plant in Nanchang city “primary position” on the roof, which is developing a distributed photovoltaic power plant. It is understood that the Nanchang photovoltaic power generation capacity of more than 8 million last year, there have been 575 homes-building families distributed power to obtain government subsidies. Recently, the Nanchang city authorities are introducing investors planned to build distributed municipal government office building roof PV power station, annual output of around 310,000.

“In policy guidance and cost reductions, driven by the enthusiasm of enterprises to invest in PV power plant now. “Nanchang city, said Wu Zhihong, Deputy Secretary of energy, in addition to large groups outside the project in Xinjian County, there are already a large number of powerful companies, plans to invest in PV power plant in Nanchang. Clou electronics 3 years of listed companies in Nanchang County investment of 2.5 billion yuan, Yue Kwong construction ground complementarity, distributed PV and agriculture complement each other, with a total installed capacity of 300 MW.

“Must be profitable, would have so many companies would be investing heavily in photovoltaic power plant. “Industry, the State provides PV on-grid price is 1 Yuan per unit, last year the province introduced a provincial subsidy levels, according to electricity per kilowatt-hour for 0.2 Yuan subsidy, in addition, some districts and cities still have subsidies for photovoltaic power generation, such as Nanchang was 0.15 yuan per unit. This greatly improved the economics of PV power generation projects in our province, and enhance investment in Jiangxi’s enthusiasm.

Taihe County, recently introduced an investor, plans to invest 1.2 billion yuan in building 200 megawatts of photovoltaic power stations on the ground; Jiangsu xinghuo lighting group signed a contract with in Yongxiu County, 1.08 billion yuan investment, create two new photovoltaic power plant, installed capacity of 120 MW; energy-saving solar technology company was Lianhua County in the construction of a 50-megawatt photovoltaic power plant, with a total investment of 500 million Yuan.

And local PV manufacturers are aggressively entering the power station construction. At the end of last year, jinkosolar has about 500 MW grid-connected solar project in the country; LDK LDK, risun solar energy and a number of manufacturers are extending to the photovoltaic plant and raw materials.

In August and October last year, jinko have announced, hengfeng County in Shicheng County and invested 800 million dollars and 1.6 billion dollars respectively, building 100-megawatt and 200-megawatt photovoltaic power plant, when completed, annual output will reach 110 million and 240 million degrees, respectively. In February this year, in hengfeng County, a 50 MW installed capacity of the company is in production when the average annual electricity output of 55 million-kilowatt, is the first “Agriculture photovoltaic PV, ground, surface photovoltaic” PV power station of the Trinity, is currently the largest photovoltaic power station in Jiangxi province.

According to data from the National Energy Board: at the end of last year, PV cumulative installed capacity in our province is 390,000-kilowatt. And photovoltaic power generation target of our province have been finalized, installed capacity this year to reach 1 million-kilowatt.

Original title: installed capacity of fertile soil into PV power station in Jiangxi province to invest this year, Jiangxi will reach kW