Whether in rural rooftop PV endures long after?

Polaris solar PV net news: in recent years, distributed PV in China wind, State advocate and support the development of distributed PV new energy, launched the new deal in all regions, popular distributed photovoltaic power plant. PV companies and practitioners are also quite bullish on distributed PV and estimating future scenarios of distributed PV market is very high, said it was an important way out for solving the bottleneck of energy, is to adjust the energy structure and an important magic weapon, domestic roof rack for distributed solar power station in the future, everyone is generating … … Along with that, distributed PV and popularity in various parts of the building, distributed PV audience levels rise, the people of distributed PV noted with satisfaction that, in his roof-mounted solar power panels. Along with promotion of distributed PV and PV pro-poor policy guidelines, many rural roof began to build a photovoltaic power station, “PV village campaign” kicked off this. Distributed PV solar component, converts solar energy into electrical energy and power solutions. The pattern advocates “spontaneously, for personal use, residual on-line”, is improving in China’s energy structure, the important way to relieve environmental pressures. However, the din of distributed generation in the industry questioned, saying that “jiaxing distributed photovoltaic mode” its essence is burning cash subsidies, “vanity project”, distributed PV dilemma, and met a lot of holes. So, for most backward economy and ecological environment in rural areas, it also has its own set of woes, whether through many difficulties, through a deep pit then? This becomes the most questions worth pondering.

First, in rural areas the current

Status quo: “kongkecun” appeared in large numbers.

Since reform and opening up, a large number of transfer of rural population to urban areas, their livelihood, for marriage, for their children’s education, and had to leave the countryside, to the good town, or work, or business, or traveling, or school or residency. There are flickers in the past, some are forced by family, some are attracted to the outside world, some are reading for school … … In 2010, the sixth national census data show, living in the village has a population of 674149546 people, accounting for 50.32%. Compared with the 2000 compared to the fifth national census, rural depopulation and 133237289. The shrinking population-where is it? In addition to natural deaths and other accidents killed, large segments of the population have gone to cities and towns. In short, in this part, and went out, you never want to go back to the countryside when farmers.

Due to the rural exodus, which makes the rural population decline, led directly to the rural collective economic downturn, “Wei Hui, empty-nest”, the disappearance of rural schools, a large number of land barren, House collapse ruined rural cultural landscape and natural extinction, mostly widows, women and children left behind remnants of the weak, “empty nest” elderly and the left-behind children apparent. With the passage of time, large numbers of young people settle, marry and have children on the outside, and also received a residence for the elderly lived. Some young people also hire themselves out, not to come back for a long time, family reasons, also put the old man’s wife and children to work to live … … But in some cases it is due to move in search of better living conditions in rural areas, they collectively discuss moving together, not willing to move only to stay in the village.

Situation two: disappearing countryside.

According to statistics, in 2000, there are 3.6 million villages nationwide, and by the year 2010, villages were reduced to 2.7 million. Ten years to reduce 300,000 villages a day reduce 300 villages. This is a very scary data, think at this rate, 2.7 million villages can live how long? 90 years later, no more villages to speak of, this is not alarmist talk.

Population outflow led to emergence of kongkecun and because of natural disasters caused by the destruction of the village, which is overwhelming. However, there are done deliberately for the people like war, demolition, etc. In peace and war is extremely rare, except for some occasional disturbances in border areas, and massacred in the village of terrorists and lawless elements outside, being human is a large area of the end for the demolition.

In accordance with the normal social order, demolition is the inevitable product of urbanization, as well as with the construction of new countryside and village construction work are being carried out that part of the construction or repair or demolition. But many local officials in the record, does not take into account rural and farmer’s actual situation, several villages merged into a single central village, and a large area of the demolition, land occupied by villagers forfeited to the Government. They can’t move their land, started playing attention of the Homestead, built in village and town buildings, let farmers live in high-rise buildings, think that this is the new rural construction. Original rural compound, you can grow vegetables for chicken, and debris piled up … … Now, has to climb the stairs, debris piled up nowhere. If breeding poultry I want to grow some vegetables and fruits have no place. Moreover, 108,000 miles apart buildings and farmland in some places, farmers farm would go sit and motorbikes and other means of transport, it is a waste of manpower and financial resources. And the nail House, farmers who wanted to stay in the village, but be faced with falling prey to the lives, property, and safety is not guaranteed.

For this reason, if you want to install a solar panel, fits in 20 years? Key, whether the village in 20 years will not be the end of human.

Status quo three, conditions of rural housing construction

In the countryside, most of the houses were thatched House, wood House, clay brick, tile, and more, these houses to a solid well encountered storm and very easy to collapse. In recent years, with the exodus of migrant workers, most of the homes were empty, housing disrepair, after wind and rain, falling roof debris, and exterior walls were washed, houses crumbling, beams collapsed, the House has collapsed.

Four status, current situation of rural poverty population

According to people Forum data displayed, “currently China of rural poverty population 65 million people (big number) can is divided into three a part: has 11 million people around is no labor capacity of, and in absolute poverty State; has 44 million people is has labor capacity of low-income households; also has 20 million people is in above two species situation Zhijian of, can depending on specific situation used transfer paid or pro-poor development of approach. “This is just an estimate, in fact far more than this number of rural poor.

In rural areas, poor people a year how much money? In rural areas, farmers ‘ income mainly depends on Government subsidies and sale of agricultural products offered. Such as one provided, and Government subsidy of 120 Yuan per month, the year 1440. If he is still farming, direct subsidies to the Government’s land, about 1000 Yuan or so, plus other subsidies, estimates there are 500 Yuan a year or so. This piece probably around 3000 Yuan of subsidies (in fact, the farmers were not so much money to get his hand, as far as direct subsidies, many local officials that corruption is a serious, pockets). Sale of agricultural products, if there are five acres of land, can produce 500 kilograms of rice per acre, at the current market price of grain, assuming that a kilo of grain purchase prices to 1.3 Yuan, an acre of 650 Yuan, five acre 3250 dollars. Each year selling vegetables, poultry, and cattle reached more than 1000 Yuan. Then, an annual income above 7000.

The algorithm above provided that in the case of rural labor in good condition and does not consider voting counted, average farmers ‘ well-off level is like this. If farmers do not have the ability to work, direct subsidies to state corruption, or direct subsidies by the State there are not that many, or field production is not high, met both natural and man-made, marketing costs were too high, and so on. Then, farmers rely on State subsidies for households, pension insurance, health insurance, life, life is really tough. In fact, in most rural areas, the situation prevails.

Second, rooftop PV met several pits in the countryside?

First, farmers of distributed PV agree

Although extradited years reform and opening up, and science and technology has been gradually spreading to the countryside, but farmers ‘ ability to accept always lagging behind. This environment-related, and economic conditions, and also related to farmers ‘ State of mind … … For example, a new mobile phone, to spread to the country, may have to wait for years, even spreading less. First, the farmer to take into account how much money is in your pocket, whether this part of the cost of purchased agricultural products and children’s schooling and medical care in conflict. Secondly, farmers considered the phone’s practical value, if you bought a phone, no phone calls, do not call often go out, buy also equals white. Once again, farmers should also be considered after bought this phone, high running cost is low, such as telephone calls a month from 50 to 100 for low-income people, it is to their lives. In this way, a new mobile phone becomes very difficult. For a high PV consumer products, promotion seems to be much more difficult.

A distributed solar PV panels, around 30,000, said earlier, the General farmers ‘ annual income hovering around 8,000. If you want to buy a solar panel for at least 3 years of income. Unless, that is, they do not eat or drink, do not send their children to school, without the doctor, no purchase of new agricultural products, not weddings, and so on. Therefore, incomes are important reasons for restricting their buying expensive products. To try to persuade farmers to buy a set of photovoltaic equipment, at least needed some preferential policies and support programs, and could make the capital buying reason. In fact, the efforts made by countries and enterprises in this regard is considerable.

A second pit, local protection force into a tiger

Many local governments are reluctant to promote distributed PV power station, the reason is simple, the first problem is Government spending, as well as many officials want from a business hand fishes an oil, and set a high threshold. On the conventional electricity and the grid become a stumbling block, distributed network installation a PV application links more, longer, network access design is not scientific, high access costs, and so on. It is clear that photovoltaic touched upon local governments and power of certain nerves, makes it difficult to distributed PV promotion. For example, the National Energy Board recently released distributed power grid acquisition Office of Hebei regulation and subsidies the implementation report, said Hebei province in distributed generation planning targets exist in the policy implementation is slow, irregular grid management, fiscal policy is not in place and other practical problems. This allows investors “running sector” difficult national preferential policies implemented for photovoltaic industry.

The third pit, drawbacks of the PV pro-poor policies

Speaking of PV pro-poor policies, looks very nice, but it also has some problems. Such as initial funding problems, as well as the repayment issue, late technical glitches, post power problem, and after the relocation and construction of housing, photovoltaic installation problems … … While the State and company can help solve these issues, but it’s also worth pondering.

Third, rooftop photovoltaic power station outlet

Way, States “PV pro-poor” policy introduced

PV pro-poor policies

In 2014, the National Energy Council poverty alleviation Office of the State Council jointly issued the notice on issuing the implementation of PV projects for poverty alleviation programme of work (new [2014]447) files. Subsequently, the National Energy Board and the poverty alleviation Office of the State Council published the Organization of developing photovoltaic pilot project for poverty alleviation notice [2014]495 file, indicating PV 6 pilot provinces for poverty alleviation. On March 8 this year, renewable energy Secretary National Energy Board issued a circular on transmitting the letter of photovoltaic pilot programming outline for poverty alleviation.

Measures and benefit

PV pro-poor policies, initial investment subsidy of national 35%, 35%, loan 30%. Subsidized loan 5 year, VAT 3%. This is for household and agricultural use photovoltaic pro-poor policies. Its income payments and taxes, but the rest of the country to take “spontaneously occupied, more than power” policy. If the net price per unit, 1 Yuan, 10 kWh of electricity a day, then sent more than 3,600 degrees a year. So farmers can earn more than 3,600 Yuan a year.

Building conditions

First of all is whether the Housing Authority can sustain the PV panels. Said earlier, for some houses, is not suitable for installation, after installation likely to cause the housing collapse. For this type of property, nor does it facilitate the solar panels clean up and maintenance.

Secondly, how many money in farmers ‘ pockets, and the ability to borrow money at the Bank, the State subsidy is granted.

Again, light conditions, in accordance with the outline of preparation, in accordance with the outline of preparation, in principle, required average annual solar radiation should not be less than 4500MJ/m2, after converted to electricity, the full hour must not be less than 950h. In China, the solar energy resources are more abundant in most areas, annual hours of sunshine is larger than 2000h, the radiation more than 586kj/(cm2. a)。 Therefore, many areas are in line with the preparation of commitments required.

Outlet II, save the village, repairs, new rural construction needs reason

Village of mass disappear each year, in accordance with the current rate, many years later there is no rural at all. So, rooftop PV to talk about how to break into the rural market? Of course, cease to exist in rural areas, people say there are villages. In fact, village in itself does not belong to the villages, and it already belongs to a part of the city.

Local government in the construction of new rural construction of time, starting from the village development, taking into account, pay attention to the peasants ‘ vital interests, concerns those women and weak, disabled, and poor farmers, repairing village roads and houses to safeguard cultural facilities in rural areas and landscapes, avoiding villages disappeared.

Only keep villages, improving housing, PV can be landed in the countryside, farmers “making money”.

Way out of three, ‘ income is key to complete the building of a well-off society

Increasing farmers ‘ income, is the critical issue. How to increase farmers ‘ income, the State should give more preferential policies to farmers, properly solve the “three rural issues”. Adjusting the agricultural structure, improving the quality of agricultural products, open channels, relying on brand to open up the market. Secondly, relying on Science and technology, reduce cost of agricultural production, to increase efficiency. Lighten the burden on farmers, further strengthen the building of spiritual civilization in the countryside, farmers healthy consumption, establish a new trend.

Only farmers, farmers did not worry will only be bold to buy high-quality supplies, rooftop PV to “station” is safe.

Way out for four, a variety of rational distribution of distributed PV

In addition to rooftop PV, but also be installed photovoltaic power stations.

Photovoltaic greenhouses

Photovoltaic greenhouses is an ecological agriculture project, on top of the canopy to install solar electric generating stations. This shed was raising chickens ducks shed, can also be a greenhouse to grow vegetables. This way, you can reasonably use the extra space, both ducks and chickens to grow vegetables, and can generate electricity, never miss. If full use is off-grid photovoltaic power generation system, and power grid connection, that is, on-grid photovoltaic power generation system.

Water PV

Because of ground problems land PV, in many places, users put solar panels laid on at the Aquarium on their face, reservoir, River, and “fishing light” complementary ecological power generation, underwater fish and water to generate electricity.

Terrestrial photovoltaic

In the rural, mountainous area of the main location. In recent years, the rural areas of the mountain range the barren stone bare, treeless, grass covered small, has become a barren hill. And open access to the hills and are not in place, farmers how to use barren Hills is the key.

In many places, a spacious drying yard in front of the House, only the Sun will only produce it large-area use, others almost untouched.

In view of this, the solar floor can be installed anywhere.

Four, concluding remarks

Villages gradually disappeared, a large number of the rural exodus, dilapidated housing faces a danger of collapse, and rural poverty that must be resolved … … Rural rooftop PV’s future? Rooftop solar power in rural endures long after that? How can rural PV promotion through to the end? Solve PV solution, for the benefit of farmers, farmer at ease, the money’s liking.

Original title: in rural areas, rooftop PV endures can be persisted?

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