Taiwan manufacturers one out solar business

Polaris solar PV net news: recent Taiwan manufacturers often choose to fade out solar business, TSMC had previously owned Taiwan solar energy trading at the end of August 2015, then reduce Motech solar plant one-third holding, apart from TSMC, recently AUO and UMC are respectively out of the solar business, the former production polysilicon products, while the latter is a director resignation Motech.

Polycrystalline silicon is no longer competitive, AUO subsidiary production polysilicon

Friends up Yu January 8 announcement, its holding 99.9% of subsidiary Japan Solar polysilicon factory M.Setek Board, resolution exit polysilicon manufacturing, on production polysilicon of plant and the equipment full for once sex assets derogation mention column, recognize column related assets derogation amount up to 24.65 billion day currency (about collection NT 6.75 billion yuan), and mention column Yu 2015 4th quarter, is expected to erosion friends up Shang quarter each unit after-tax surplus about 0.7 Yuan.

AUO was founded in 2009 M.Setek, planned polysilicon capacity up to 7,000 tons, but as polysilicon market changed dramatically in recent years, supply and demand imbalances, M.Setek manufacturing polycrystalline silicon is no longer competitive, nearly 2 years accounting for revenue is less than 10%, M.Setek stopped production of the resolution of the Board, and in accordance with the accounting principles for asset impairment testing, after careful assessment, According to the prudence principle polysilicon manufacturing related asset impairments recognized 24.65 billion yen, focus on more competitive advantage in the future of silicon ingots (Ingot) products.

AUO plans, the impairment of assets will be recognized in the 2015 4th quarter, AUO is expected last quarter earnings after tax effect of 0.7 yuan per share, and 2016 consolidated depreciation amount estimated about 1.1 billion yuan. In addition, AUO said the non-cash asset impairments and therefore has had no effect on the company’s operating cash flow. However, the Corporation believes that 2015 Panel poor market conditions in the 4th quarter, AUO recognition related assets losses, will make the previous quarter profitability as a whole into the red.

After the tide to no competitive advantage in business, AUO is expected to substantially improve the quality of solar business assets, reducing operational burden and strengthening the long-term operating performance, fight solar business by turning it.

Mission completed, UMC resignation Motech directors

UMC under UMC new investments on January 11 resigned directorships of Motech solar plant, and has no plans to dispose of Motech ownership within short time, as to whether the subsequent further sell, UMC said announcement will prevail.

Owned by UMC with Motech solar cell factory, witsview in July 2015 after the merger, the UMC new investments will, through a share swap to acquire Motech 1 Director with 9% shares. Message to resign directorships, UMC said, had sold the King seeks to phase out solar business, resigned from the Board in planning step.

In this regard, Motech said the King into Motech has synergy, and UMC resigned directors to shareholders of policy considerations. Vacant Board seats in 2016, shareholders in the election

Original title: large series out of the solar business, AUO exit Motech polysilicon manufacturing, UMC resignation of Directors

R2 D2 mini fridge can be moved most people can t afford to buy

For Star Wars fans, to see this “robot” first impression should be very exciting, because it’s prototype is from Star Wars. But after you understand it, may be this excited mood will be disappointed. Because it’s just a fridge. TESLA iPhone 6s Case

TESLA iPhone 6s Case

Yes, it makes you feel disappointed because it is not a robot. Accurate to say that, it is not a robot, after all, it is the ability to move, just needs to be artificially controlled, lack the intelligence of his move. Of course, as a refrigerator, can have such a capacity has been amazing.

R2-D2 mini fridge can be moved most people can't afford to buy

We always knew that fridge is usually in the kitchen. Of course, if your home is large enough for trench, you can also install a small refrigerator in the bedroom, specifically used for snacks and drinks. After all, most of the time, especially in the heat of summer, people like to drink something cold. Of course, this little guy can also replace this feature, because it can be moved. When you sit at home watching TV or playing computer games when, if you’re too lazy to get up to the kitchen to get a drink, you can put it by remote control “call”.

R2-D2 mini fridge can be moved most people can't afford to buy

Of course, since its design is more complex, and itself is relatively small in size, so the volume is relatively limited. Can only store about 6 standard size bottle of drink. But if a person drinks, 6 bottles of soft drinks you drink enough for a long time. These are not the point, focusing on its price, up to $ 8000 (about RMB 50644).

R2-D2 mini fridge can be moved most people can't afford to buy

For small series, anyway, rather than buy it or spend thousands of dollars to buy a small refrigerator in the bedroom, nothing more. Here cannot help but ridicule one: such a high price, buy it for reasons other than Hao, also what?

Star Wars R2D2 iPhone 6 Case

Star Wars R2D2 iPhone 6 Case

R2D2 iPhone 6 case

Collection is the collection of 1542

Tags: design

If you need to reprint, you want the E-Mail authorization. annotated “source Yu Weifeng network”, an unauthorized reprint, lost chapter reprinted, and this website will be held accountable by law! E-Mail: QingXing@office.feng.com TESLA

United States countervailing preliminary crystalline silicon PV cells to China

Polaris solar PV net news: according to China’s Ministry of Commerce on January 8, 2016, officials said, United States Department of Commerce to China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells (whether or not assembled in modules) earlier countervailing duty administrative review, and following corporate subsidy rate is 19.62%: JA (Yangzhou) solar technology limited (JA Solar Technology Yangzhou Co.,Ltd.) ; Changzhou Trina solar energy co (Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co.,Ltd); Suntech Power (Wuxi Suntech PowerCo.,Ltd).

On February 4, 2015, the United States Department of Commerce to China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells (whether or not assembled in modules) for countervailing duty administrative review investigation, the investigation period January 1, 2013 to ~2013 on December 31, in connection with product customs codes 8501.61.0000, 8507.20.80, and so on.

Original title: United States China earlier countervailing duty administrative review made of crystalline silicon solar cells Conference

Prices reversed PV enterprises innovation

Arctic star solar PV network news: Reporter understand to, for implementation circular of the energy development strategy action plans (2014-2020) target requirements, reasonable guide new energy investment, promote land wind electric, and PV power, new energy industry Health ordered development, promoted around new energy balance development, improve can renewable energy electric price additional funds subsidies efficiency, according to can renewable energy method, National Energy Council decided adjustment new land wind electric and PV power Internet benchmark electric price policy, With effect from January 1, 2016.

Electricity prices is a general trend

Qingdao prosperity day electric solar technology Corporation General Manager Wu Xiaofeng in accept interview Shi said, this times Internet electric price of cut, actually is national series policy adjustment of specific action, like energy development strategy action plans (2014-2020) and Energy Council held of Suzhou international energy change Forum,, clear has national future vigorously development clean energy of direction and main of development path, this on PV industry for is major of good.

But to see that countries want to gradually open up its energy sector, in particular development more rapid clean-energy industry to achieve parity, completion of the marketing process. Policies in the electricity prices and bidding, direct supply policies are measures of the reform in the field of energy.

Wu Xiaofeng said, from PV industry practitioners of angle see, certainly is hope electric price maintained not variable even price only good, electric price cut short-term within on project of returns capacity and the enterprise of financing capacity will produced compared big of effect, especially price and limited sent, in same time occurred, on this on investment big, and recycling period long of PV power station for future construction and operation will more hard. But any industry cannot rely on Government subsidies to survive, through competition and technological innovation, innovation, photovoltaic power higher costs will gradually down to level with the power level to achieve parity, but now electricity prices are forcing enterprises to innovate. From the Government’s perspective, the emergence of phenomena due to the subsidies, partly because the total subsidy but caused by limited financial resources, electricity prices is a general trend.

Jin, General Manager of clean-tech Yang Liyou said in an interview, subsidies for new energy must decrease until no subsidies over the years, the significance of this is that the industrial scale increase of subsidies to promote advances in technology, economies of scale and cost reduction of competition in the market and eventually reach the level of subsidy-free and cheap Internet access.

Yang Liyou said, according to national NDRC on perfect land wind electric PV power Internet benchmark electric price policy of notification, 2016 yiqian record and Yu June 30, 2016 Qian all voted shipped of PV power station still implementation original Internet benchmark electric price, this means with in June 2016 yiqian, to get more high of benchmark electric price and better of investment returns, PV component market will will maintained prosperity even appeared Rob loaded tide, and June zhihou with subsidies cut may will appeared obviously of price fell.

Markets will face big reshuffle

PV on-grid price decline, PV enterprises how to respond?

In this regard, said Wu Xiaofeng, because the price is reduced year by year, so PV enterprises will take advantage of the relatively high price of installing part of the project. PV targets, can predict the future of the province, the competition will be more fierce, companies want their station to enjoy relatively high electricity prices, competition will be more intense. Addition, power station of returns is nothing more than is electricity multiplied by Internet electric price, electric price national will gradually cut, to make up this a loss, enterprise will in improve electricity Shang head, active looking for light resources relative sufficient of area mass construction project, especially those light resources rich while and no power risk of area, like Hebei North, to, these area will will became the home PV Enterprise competition of focus. Reducing cost and increasing efficiency, hard skills. Electricity prices will force PV enterprises constantly improve system operation and efficiency, reduce system cost and operation cost. According to Wu Xiaofeng introduced a few years ago in PV when times are good, many people see PV to earn money, have crowded into this area. Later on overseas solar markets slump, exports were “double negative survey”, many companies shifted from manufacturing to invest in domestic power station construction, there is inevitably mixed, heavy construction light operation business was not alone. Electricity price cut this time was beginning a major shuffle of the PV market, many small scale, lack of technical reserves, innovation capacity and weak financing capacity of the enterprises will be eliminated, and those who find the right development path, the enterprise will have a basis in the markets to temper growing.

Yang Liyou, PV subsidies cuts, the most immediate effect was a project return on investment, this forces the project developers have high requirements for quality, means that the most cost-effective power generation equipment, power plant siting and design of optimal. For the PV industry, persuading manufacturers to reduce costs and increase efficiency on the one hand, eliminating backward production capacity of nature, on the Internet benchmark pricing policies are more conducive to the development of distributed PV, the future will to a certain extent, reduce large ground power station in Northwest China’s massive investments and the resulting problem of abandoned light. While more distributed PV applications in coastal developed areas, spontaneously, for personal use, dissolve, more efficient use of solar energy resources. For the development of enterprise in the future, said Yang Liyou, Jin neng technology will actively develop distributed photovoltaic market in the provision of cheap and efficient photovoltaic modules at the same time, but also to provide customers with more diversified forms of cooperation such as finance lease.

PV enterprises still face many challenges

At present, China’s PV enterprises what are the challenges? For example renewable energy subsidies in arrears problem has existed for a long time, whether there is a viable solution?

In this regard, Wu Xiaofeng said that in the general trend towards a good background, photovoltaic business process also encountered some problems, more common such as electricity prices, subsidies in arrears, optical limiting discards, which all the PV industry is a tough test. There are also problems troubling PV agriculture, such as project issues. “The restricted issue, subsidies of delaying the need for country-level coordination network and other departments to resolve this bottleneck if you cannot overcome, then the future prospects for new energy development will be undermined. “Wu Xiaofeng said.

Price lowered need solar products from both inside and outside to solve. From within to improve power quality on the one hand, and improve power generation; to lower construction costs, and financing costs. In the resource-rich region from the outside early layout, installing a certain scale of large projects.

Wu Xiaofeng told reporters that PV problems of agricultural land ministries recently issued many rules, mainly against some irregularities in some parts of land made in response to the chaos. But really like prosperity under the shed to do agriculture, does not change the nature of land, no damage to the plow, and also can increase output per unit area, a substantial increase in farmers ‘ incomes, such a model not only should not be limited, but should be enhanced support.

Original title: power prices forced PV enterprises innovation

2015 global financing amounted to us 25 3 billion residential and commercial

Polaris solar PV net news: in 2015, global solar financing amounted to 25.3 billion dollars, down slightly from 2014 year of 26.5 billion dollars. Second half of 2015 the global turmoil in the stock market, with many companies operating in the yieldco issue, so this figure still represents the development of the solar industry is not bad.

Mercom Capital Group announced the year 2015 solar industry financing mergers and acquisitions activity report, report, contains listed companies ‘ venture capital and private equity investments, debt financing, project financing, the open market, 2015 global corporate finance amount came to $ 25.3 billion. The company CEO Raj Prabhu pointed out that United States extended the investment tax credits (ITC) programme in 2016, the solar industry is expected to return to the boom.

The same report also noted that the downstream 2015 a total of us $ 1 billion in venture capital 69%, Africa, India and South Asia Enterprise off-grid electricity market also won the $ 1 venture capital investment. Solar energy technology businesses to invest US $ 173 million; balance enterprises raised US $ 87 million; thin-film solar companies raised $ 44 million; $ 15 million of financing for service providers, concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrating solar thermal (CSP) funding of about $ 3 million.

Noteworthy records in the residential and commercial financing for your project. Mercom Capital Group’s report shows that in both types of project financing to reach 5.5 billion dollars high, higher than the US $ 4 billion in 2014. Major funding: SolarCity, and Sungevity, and Onyx Renewable Partners, and Sunlight Financial, Brite Energy as well as Kilowatt Financial. In the case of ITC extension, both levels of project financing in the future may also be raised.

Original title: residential and commercial solar companies raised $ 25.3 billion for the year rally watch

Solar lighted the night the storm hit Black Swan lamp

Polaris solar PV net news: early 2016, turmoil in global financial markets, how to find theme of medium-and long-term investment, into an important topic under a storm of Black Swan! American brokerages Oppenheimer securities (Oppen heimer) suggested that Government policy looking for bright spots, on the initiative of global economic growth and clean energy, the solar industry is a beacon in the night, Oppenheimer securities believes that the share price performance of the solar industry this year is expected to outperform.

According to Oppenheimer securities pointed out that global solar power continues to grow, demand in 2015 than 51.3GW, and this year will exceed the value 60.9GW. Main installations will be Japan and India. Looking forward to 2017-2018, or install a high growth, including the United States, new markets, and India.

In terms of production and sales, Oppenheimer securities noted that the recent performance of solar module prices held steady, under forecasts this year because of strong demand and a decline in the average cost, module price is expected to be more populist, while production costs also have the opportunity to develop greater economies of scale.

Solar photovoltaic technology singularity approach

Polaris solar PV net news: the so-called “singularity” is photovoltaic technology in most countries of the world to become cheap enough, and basic power source is used as the default time. By then, the outbreak of the fast developments in the PV.

“Singularity” concept was known for a book on artificial intelligence

During last year’s climate conference in Paris, development of renewable energy to reduce carbon emissions is finally entering the mainstream view. Unfortunately, the solar wind how such technology can be completed without compromising economic growth under the condition of easing the burden of climate change, misunderstanding still exist to a certain extent.

From wind, solar and other renewable energy and electric cars looking at the current cost trends, we are on the right road in significantly reducing emissions.

Whether such scale carbon emission reduction can mitigate the extremes of climate change disasters are another big problem. Observers and critics should realize is that in the last ten years declining technology costs, renewable energy and electric vehicle technology has been pushed to the tipping point, the spread of these technologies is accelerating.

Solar energy: why the future of energy a bright solar technologies is presented in the book “the singularity” concept. It now appears that technical approach “singularity” faster than people think big.

In addition to photovoltaic technologies, energy storage, electric vehicles and automatic driving technology development and interaction that will dramatically change the face of the world energy system. Based on these four technologies of speculation, we expect to 2035-2040, renewable energies in the power sector dominated, not only in the field of residential and commercial, in the transport and industrial sectors as well.

“Singularity” how close?

Continue steadily downward in the price of photovoltaic panels in the year 2015. According to GTMResearch calculations, fixation a large solar system cost price only in the second quarter from 1.58 per cent to $ 1.49/w. The cost trend is expected to continue downstream, in 2020, the new PV installed capacity will reach 135GW in global markets. (New in 2015 55GW is enough to supply 10 million households in California) under the trend of growth, PV will account for half of new electricity installed capacity annually during this period.

Despite the steady decline in the price of photovoltaic panels, total cost of the main drive has turned to the balance cost of the system, including components other than the expenses for equipment, installation and marketing. In 2015, that part of the total cost of the 55%. The figure below shows the intended cost and number of installed capacity by 2020.


Solar photovoltaic technology

Photo: utility-scale PV installed capacity and cost forecast source: GTM Research

Hebei on the strengthening of the Office of housing promotion of solar BIPV

Polaris solar PV net news: municipalities (including Dingzhou, xinji City) housing and urban-rural construction Bureau (Bureau), the Planning Board:

To follow up the implementation of the law on renewable energy, energy-saving emission reduction strategies, to allow me to advance solar BIPV application across the province, and related matters are hereby notified as follows:

One, enhanced initiative

National Energy Board drafting measures for the administration of the sword

Polaris solar PV net news: National Energy Board drafting the administrative measures for guaranteeing the purchasing renewable power generation in full (draft for soliciting opinions) (hereinafter referred to as the methods) recently to solicit opinions of the whole society. In fact, “full of affordable acquisition” is not proposed for the first time. Highlights of this policy is to achieve “full purchase” relies on the principle of is no longer policy calls for, but there is a real hand, clarified the scope of liability, security and compensation methods.

“The measures introduced the biggest motivation is to solve the current problem of abandoned light wind up pressing for. “China Wind Energy Association General Secretary Qin Haiyan said in an interview, the measures put forward, aimed at building through practical mechanisms, thoroughly solve the perennial problem of the renewable energy industry sustainable development. It highlights science in energy management in our country and the spirit of legal system, its significance and impact will be far-reaching.

Clear management and operation mechanism

“Fully acquire its power grid enterprises covered by the electricity grid-connected renewable energy projects. “In 2006, a concise language for the renewable energy sources Act sets up a near-perfect ideal vision for renewable energy development. Subject to no specific operational rules in place, full purchase renewable power generation for so many years has not implemented.

“Visually speaking, the approach can be understood on the basis of the renewable energy sources Act on ‘ fully guaranteeing the purchasing renewable electricity ‘ regulations for the implementation of electric power system reform in the series concerning goals and tasks formulated specific measures. “Qin Haiyan said that in modified documents released by 2015, also proposed some renewable energies priority Internet access and affordable acquisition framework.

Reporters noted that the methods chapter, the third and fourth chapters and other sections on liability and subject of a specification, defined the various departments of the Government, the power grid enterprises, conventional power plants and renewable energy power plant Division of responsibility and authority, presented a very clear set of management and operation mechanism.

Chapter II of the fourth article of the methods, the grid is the responsibility of implementing the main, but not punish the bearer of responsibility. Qin Haiyan analysis, according to new electric modified 9th, paper content, grid still retained scheduling institutions and will led trading institutions of formed, grid will became power resources trading configuration of platform, so grid should bear can renewable energy full supportability acquisition of subject responsibility, and bear priority scheduling can renewable energy, and statistics and sharing can renewable energy abandoned electricity, and full mining system adjustable peak potential, and strengthening transmission channel construction, responsibility.

The methods required, grid line and the power grid caused by unplanned maintenance of renewable power compensation liability of power grids. “That is to say, outside the grid itself, the grid does not directly undertake the compensation responsibility for renewable energy, which promoted the new electricity reform power grid from the ‘ monopoly ‘ roles ‘ received from the Internet, ‘ changes in the same direction. “Qin Haiyan said.

Accordingly, the liability assumed by the unit in fact benefit. Reality is actually by the thermal power plants to compensate.

This is evidence, supporting document, the modification of the opinions on promoting the construction of electric power market in the “priority for renewable power generation, giving priority to power generation contract is negotiable”. According to this formulation, abandon wind, abandon light to enjoy priority of renewable power generation right transfers to other units, the corresponding unit should undertake the renewable energies resulting loss.

Qin Haiyan said that as one of the measures of the core content of punitive measures to compensate for the economic loss of the renewable energy on the one hand, and on the technical issues to economic issues, forcing system to improve the absorptive capacity of renewable energy.

Effects on thermal power is not unbearable

The measures proposed for the first time in guaranteeing the purchasing power and marketing power of Division:

–Guaranteeing the purchasing power through annual power generation of the priority plan, priority power contract with the grid (physical contracts or contracts for difference) guarantees a full takeover.

–Market power from renewable-energy companies through access to power the contract to participate in market competition, and by dispatching the Executive power contracts.

So taking into account compensation power is guaranteeing the purchasing power and renewable energy difference of the actual capacity. The regulations, compensation for electricity price according to local renewable energy Internet benchmarking pricing implementation, namely the local benchmark price of coal desulfurization with renewable additional price. Desulfurization of coal-fired electricity price part of thermal power units are responsible for compensation, renewable additional pricing part is still paid by the national renewable energy fund.

This part is guaranteed renewable of primary income, matching documents modified to encourage renewable power, the measures also encourage more generating capacity to participate in market competition. The measures put forward, beyond the scope of protection capacity to participate in market transactions, through market competition mechanism to ensure priority access.

“Guaranteed ways to achieve a transformation of affordable electricity capacity to plan, promote equitable interests played an efficient and market competition. The combination of the two could overcome the present difficulties. “Qin Haiyan said.

The regulations unit compensation renewable energy limited power loss, it will not cause additional burden to thermal power units?

In this regard, industry experts agreed that the implementation of the measures will reduce the generation of thermal power unit hours, but not unbearable.

Qin Haiyan, percentage of renewable energy in China is still very low, wind power and photovoltaic power generation accounted for 3% of the total electricity consumption, little influence on thermal power. He simple calculations to reporters an account: wind power installed capacity by 2020 the country 250 million kilowatt, photovoltaic capacity calculation of 150 million kW, wind power, photovoltaic electricity only increased to 8%, still little effects on thermal power. If we can solve all of this up wind up photoelectric, replaced by the new energy power generation, only the effects of thermal power use hours and 50 hours.

“Taking into account the realities of current coal enterprises more profitable, has reduced subsidies will not significantly impact on the thermal power enterprises, should bear the environmental external costs than was minimal, but to convey national energy development of the power industry’s determination. “Qin Haiyan said.

Original title: renewable energy affordable acquisition in full will be born

Take the first step First homemade large passenger jet C919 final assembly line

  On November 2, the first Jumbo Jet C919, China officially declared final assembly line. This is expected and controversy surrounding the aircraft, it is destined to become the focus of discussion in Chinese.

Take the first step! First homemade large passenger jet C919 final assembly line

  The C919 as medium-haul airliner, the maximum capacity for 190 people, the standard range of 4075 km and increasing to 5555 km. It has a cruising speed of Mach 0.785, a maximum flight altitude of 12100 m. C919 paper data very well, using a variety of advanced design, there are low cost, low fuel consumption benefits.

  C919 was born destined to accompany questioned the reason for this lies in the establishment and development the percentage participation of foreign partners, so irony as “assembled goods” a lot of people. But we need to see is that throughout the process in the aircraft industry and aircraft participated in every major system and development of large, aerodynamic parts are done by people independent of them. Economic globalization and the globalization of production and development today, perhaps we should not be “purely domestic” have too much obsession, after all, the most important thing now is the accumulation of practical experience.

  In addition, China’s bitter history is also on the research and development of the C919 large aircraft development needs advanced foreign technologies as important factors in power. In contrast, research games-20 West fly over the military’s orders, on the accumulated technology superior to many.

  Anyway, in large passenger aircraft which we finally was his first step. As many people have criticized the engine is not “Chinese heart” problem, now have plans in 2020 will change Chinese Yangtze 1000A engine. Success can not only make commercial use of the C919, it can also be converted into a special aircraft in the military field, compared with the huge transport-20 is more appropriate. INCIPIO iPhone 6 Case

  It is understood that the C919 has to date received order from 517 at home and abroad.

[Article correction]

Collection is the collection of 1542 INCIPIO iPhone 6

Tags: Science and technology Design

If you need to reprint, you want the E-Mail authorization. annotated “source Yu Weifeng network”, an unauthorized reprint, lost chapter reprinted, and this website will be held accountable by law! E-Mail: QingXing@office.feng.com

INCIPIO iPhone 6 Case

China s PV industry and taxation what policies are needed to support

Polaris solar PV net news: first, the perfect PV industry financial policy

According to China’s actual situation, in the development of PV industry in China financial policy, taking into account the regulation of the local Government’s industry policy of the Central Government, and the Central Government to the local governments in the coordination of the implementation of industrial policies. In the case of excessive development of manufacturing of PV products and PV industry policy should shift to incentive for end users of photovoltaic products, and to transfer the funds to the downstream industry chain to achieve overall balanced development of China PV industry chain downstream. In addition, solar photovoltaic products, China is suffering from more than one country or region of the countervailing duty investigation, the Chinese Government should adjust the financial subsidy policy of the photovoltaic industry in order to counter the risks in industry caused by external factors.

First, industrial policy makers should raise WTO rules familiarity with emphasis to more flexible WTO rules, to sort out the existing subsidy policies, earlier ruled out risks of anti-subsidy investigations and in the development of new fiscal policies must adhere to the rules, pay attention to alternative measures.

Secondly, China is still a developing country, should enjoy the benefits of WTO rules for developing countries, use of minimal subsidy to promote the development of domestic industries in order to improve the competitiveness of China’s export market share and again, government departments should establish information services system, in order to help the PV enterprises to obtain accurate information on sales and production.

Finally, China PV industry policy, PV product or should subsidies production subsidies to production factors, with particular emphasis on input to r.

Second, improve solar tax policy

According to the present situation of China PV industry policy to improve PV industry tax policy plays a role in boosting the development of industry. In VAT aspects, to promote solar PV power market of development and cost of declined, and encourages PV power market of investment, can consider reference China on SHP Enterprise implemented of offers tax, and on sales wind electric of that levy that back policy to reduced solar PV power enterprise of VAT; in income tax aspects, first to study enterprise income tax: due to PV enterprise of income tax in the of offers policy constraints conditions many, makes PV enterprise in enjoy offers policy of aspects by has many limit.

So, for PV enterprise should reference national focus support of high-tech enterprise of offers tax to levy PV enterprise of income tax, and through offers measures of directory added and modified, makes PV enterprise can enjoy to tax credits, aspects of offers; on personal income tax aspects,, currently China Solar PV industry of talent more shortage, in for human capital investment of while, to on introduced of PV technology talent give personal income tax of offers.

In tariff aspects, to encourages domestic funds of input, on from abroad introduced of PV products and advanced equipment should enjoy to foreign-funded enterprises in China enjoy of imports link of relief tariff and preferential treatment; also, can on tariff for flexible of regulation, for example on imports completely of PV component levy high tariff,; in export rebate aspects, can integrated consider international domestic of form, appropriate of reduced export rebate of tax, guide PV enterprise develop domestic of PV market, increased on domestic solar PV products of application, Promote the healthy and sustainable development of the domestic photovoltaic industry. In terms of business tax should be engaged in solar photovoltaic equipment and technology related to the development of services and technical consulting income are exempted or reduced sales taxes, to encourage solar photo-voltaic technology development with the development and application of environmental technologies.

Original title: China’s PV industry and taxation what policies are needed to support

Shanghai municipal development and Reform Commission coal down 3 11 points additional

Polaris solar PV net news: Shanghai tube (2016), 1th

Shanghai Municipal electric power company, the power generation companies:

According to the national development and Reform Commission on reducing coal-fired electricity price notifications and general commercial and industrial electricity prices (the change price (2015) No. 3105) requirements, the electricity pricing related matters are hereby notified as follows:

First, the city’s coal-fired electricity price per kWh by 3.11 cents (tax, the same below), adjusted to the new benchmark coal price per kilowatt hour 0.4048 (sale price of coal-fired power plant are detailed in annex 1). Renewable energy project settlement price adjust. Price according to the change made by the national development and Reform Commission (2015) provided in file No. 962, reduced to the dam, xiluodu and power from Anhui to East power transmission prices.

Second, the city “commercial and other electrical” prices down 2.12 cents per kWh on average (adjusted for business and industrial electricity prices are detailed in annex 2). Residential electricity consumption, production of electricity, and ferroalloys, caustic soda (including ion-exchange membrane) electricity, sewer power electricity prices do not adjust.

Third, in addition to living and agricultural production other than the electricity surcharge levied on renewable electricity price standards, increased to 1.9 cents per kilowatt hour.

Part four, the use of coal-fired electricity price cut spaces, establishment of a special fund for the restructuring of industrial enterprises. According to the relevant State provisions.

Five, and according to national development reform Board, and environmental protection Department, and national energy Council on implemented coal-fired power plant super low emissions electric price support policy about problem of notification (sent modified price (2015) No. 2835,) provides, by city environmental sector acceptance qualified and meet national super low emissions limited value requirements of coal-fired power enterprise, on January 1, 2016 yiqian has grid run of active unit unified Internet power increases each kWh 1 points money And on January 1, 2016, grid-connected operation after the new unit purchase electricity tariff increases 0.5 cents per kilowatt hour. Municipal electric power company in accordance with the monitoring provided by the City Department of environmental protection reported the settlement price subsidies, and ultra low emission electricity price subsidies funds earmarked for special accounts management, annual settlement.

Six, the above price adjustment since January 1, 2016.

Attachment: align Shanghai 1, coal-fired power plant price table


Shanghai municipal development and Reform Commission: coal down 3.11 points additional renewable electricity price per kWh-1.9

2, Shanghai sales price table


Shanghai municipal development and Reform Commission: coal down 3.11 points additional renewable electricity price per kWh-1.9

Shanghai municipal development and Reform Commission: coal down 3.11 points additional renewable electricity price per kWh-1.9

Shanghai municipal development and Reform Commission: coal down 3.11 points additional renewable electricity price per kWh-1.9

Shanghai Municipal price Bureau

The January 5, 2016

Original title: Shanghai Municipal price Bureau on coal and electricity price linkage adjustment notice

Polaris solar PV NET week focus highlights 1 4 1 8

Polaris solar PV net news: policy review

1. about 2015, Hefei photovoltaic application (second batch) of policies to deliver public

A few days ago, Hefei city development and Reform Commission, the Commission, the Committee on agriculture in 2015, Hefei, Hefei, and the Department of Finance jointly issued a circular on photovoltaic application (second batch) of policies to deliver public, distributed, 25 of them, the total installed capacity of 54.56134MW, grants of 6.7728 million Yuan. Family PV project 855 households, the total installed capacity of 4.03297MW, support 12,039,030.

For more details

2. the Henan provincial development and Reform Commission on further standardizing the management of photovoltaic power generation project construction notice

To conscientiously implement the State Council on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry opinions, regulate the photovoltaic power generation project construction management, promote photovoltaic applications, and promote the sustained and healthy development of the photovoltaic industry, PV found Henan Province issued a notice relating to project management.

For more details

3. solar photovoltaic projects, Huangshi city subsidy rules

For effective follow-up to the views on support for the development of PV industry in Huangshi City (Michael ‘ ban (2014), 31st), to facilitate project owners (including the units and individuals) get the PV project subsidies, encourage and support development of PV industry in Huangshi city, Hubei Province, speeding up the new energy model city creating work, especially the development of the rules.

For more details

4. the “blockbuster” National Energy Board: expanding the scope of PV implementation for poverty alleviation and in 2020 the 2 million poor construction of photovoltaic projects

Released on issuing the National Energy Board Web site to speed up energy development in poor areas advance notification of critical opinions out of poverty, requires central poverty alleviation and Development Conference and the CPC Central Committee and the State Council’s decision on winning the poverty battle calls, further improve the energy poverty, implement six key tasks, including accurate implementation of PV projects for poverty alleviation, completed by 2020, $ 2 million to build state card poor construction of photovoltaic projects.

For more details

5. Hebei on the strengthening of the Office of housing promotion of solar BIPV application notification

For the implementation of the renewable energy law, implementation of energy saving and emission reduction, Hebei province, strategic deployment, promote solar BIPV application across the province, has issued a circular on relevant issues. Pointed out in the article fourth of, differentiated support policies, promoting the development of industries with local advantages. Support development in key areas along the border of new energy industries such as wind power, photovoltaic, in scenery construction scale index assigned to tilt.

For more details

Market review

1. the EU’s “defection” threaten PV industry “double reverse” by extension

On December 5, 2015, EU Commission announcement that photovoltaic products, China decided to apply “double reverse” measure start sunset review investigation. The investigation will determine the “double reverse” will expire may cause the Chinese to restart related to dumping and subsidies, continue to hurt the EU’s PV industry.

For more details

2. the ten year energy plan look January landing system on the Internet

Focus on “energy Internet action plan” has been sent for approval, final file name or change the energy Internet guidelines of action and expected will be published later this month. The guidance to Internet “+” as a means of building energy Internet opening shared ecosystems, listed companies are also actively looking for business model is closely related to business, such as electricity sales operation, distributed energy, electric vehicles, etc.

For more details

3. open storage optical storage model for a new era

Promotion of the development of renewable energy, distributed energy resources, promotion of electric vehicles, none encourage energy storage power for industrial development. Poised, is the most prominent 2015 energy storage industry.

For more details

4. guaranteeing the purchasing renewable power generation in full details of the forthcoming

In order to further implement the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening the reform of electric power several opinions ([2015]9) and related supporting documentation requirements, national energy Administration has drafted the administrative measures for guaranteeing the purchasing renewable power generation in full (draft for soliciting opinions) (hereinafter referred to as the method), and on December 28, 2015 to solicit opinions of the whole society.

For more details

5. additional renewable electricity price increases is too small? PV or wind power subsidies will continue to struggle

December 30, 2015, national NDRC issued on reduced coal-fired power Internet electric price and general business electricity price of notification, decided on except residents life and agricultural production yiwai other electricity levy of can renewable energy electric price additional levy standard, improve to each kWh 1.9 points money, than zhiqian implementation of each kWh 1.5 points money of standard increased 4 PCT, growth range far below each kWh 2.5-3 points money can renewable energy of industry expected. Calculate and impose renewable energy Special Fund is expected to be more than 19 billion, barely enough to subsidize part of the arrears before, gap cover domestic renewable energy subsidies, the industry slightly disappointed.

For more details

6. State: support for wind power in key areas along the border, construction of new energy sources such as photovoltaic industry targets allocated to tilt

The State Council recently issued the State supports the development of open policy in key areas along the border measures States (2015), 72nd. Pointed out in the article fourth of the views, and to implement a differentiated support policies, promoting the development of industries with local advantages. Support development in key areas along the border of new energy industries such as wind power, photovoltaic, in scenery construction scale index assigned to tilt.

For more details

Enterprise version

1. shift from fast track approach developing long term to see how solar to overseas projects, “added value”?

First half of 2015, shipments of photovoltaic modules and photovoltaic power stations under construction reserve two aspects, solar climbed quickly to the head, far behind domestic rivals. Overseas, especially in photovoltaic market in North America, Canadian solar why success? Listen to solar power group of companies RecurrentEnergy the Sun Liu yumin, chief operating officer tells us the secret to expand overseas markets.

For more details

2. new energy investment group: *ST hairun if default shall pay breach of contract damages of 200 million Yuan

*ST hairun clarified that new energy investment group said on 7th, according to “930MW photovoltaic power plant investment agreement” and under a number of agreements, hairun related default hairun needs to pay damages to a total of 200 million Yuan.

For more details

3. Sun: original founder stock was changed to Nanjing by compulsory auction case

“Just submitted a number of filed applications to the Nanjing intermediate people’s Court, and made more than 8,000 court costs, Nanjing city intermediate people’s Court has accepted the case. “Yesterday, the Cambridge law firm, Shanghai Wu Lijun lawyer told reporters, although investor complaints over the Sun (now” GCL integration “) jurisdictions have changed, won the case but are still very confident.

For more details

4. Dragon photoelectric device PV power station project investment is not approved

The evening of January 4, Dragon photoelectric said in a statement, project investment subject matters could not through the local development and Reform Commission for approval, Hohhot, the company has suspended its promotion and investment and development cooperation.

For more details

5. Google cross-line PV “big move”: online analysts whether solar deal

Google launched a new service, whether online analysis of roof-mounted solar panels, calculated help users faster, more convenient purchase and lease of PV panels which are more appropriate, the United States actively promoted the family full use of rooftop solar power.

For more details

Comment article

1. how PV industry needs a long-term policy?

Under the current international situation in overseas countries have gradually cut subsidies for solar energy photovoltaic industry, including European and American countries in imposing countervailing duties on solar photovoltaic products in China, making China PV products exports, overcapacity, severe shortage of domestic demand. To solve these problems, we should more fully explore the domestic PV market, demand-oriented, continues to promote the sustainable development of the industry as a whole.

For more details

2. analysis of distributed PV financing difficulty

2015 is a year of realizing leap-forward development of the photovoltaic industry in China, added size in the world first, cumulative installed capacity far exceeds that of other countries. But added PV power station is behind the boom in the construction of distributed PV financing difficulties. Author Hui Yao from the PV practitioner for 2015 in terms of distributed PV financing situation was summarized and analyzed, and how analysts see distributed PV new energy finance.

For more details

3. the inhabitants of distributed PV development present situation analysis

Current PV Application market includes photovoltaic power plant and distributed PV in two ways, which distributed PV installed capacity power refers to the smaller (thousands of Watts to a few MW), encamped near the users of photovoltaic power generation system, usually access below the 35,000-volt level grid.

For more details

4. new power to renewable energy to dissolve to provide the system guarantee

At present, the reform has entered the implementation stage, and to launch a number of provincial and municipal pilot. “Thirteen-Five” should the issue of renewable power to dissolve while highlighting areas of provincial, regional, pilot, dissolve to promote renewable power market mechanism and policy measures as a pilot scheme and the important task of promoting change.

For more details

5. harmonization of planning can crack the solar wind power cycle?

For a period of time to wind, PV, represented new energy to dissolve hard, especially the three northern regions rationing abandon wind or power abandoned the increasingly serious social hot spots, national grid company recently said, stacking of multiple factors that lead to new energy to dissolve contradictions have become more prominent.

For more details

6. why the list of green bonds?

China Finance Association of green Finance Committee announced on December 22, 2015 the China Green bonds support directory (2015). This directory is a basic of building green in China’s bond market, will become a Green Green bonds bond approval and registration, a third party assessment, green bond rating and disclosure of a reference.

For more details

Office of the national development and Reform Commission notice on guidelines

Polaris solar PV net news: development finance [2015]3504

Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and separately listed cities, Xinjiang production and construction Corps, the Heilongjiang farm administration of national development and Reform Commission, the relevant province (district, municipal) (Office for the Commission, the letter, the postal Office), the central management of enterprises:

For implement implementation party of 18 big and 18 session II in the, and three in the, and four in the, and v plenary spirit, according to CPC Central Committee State on speed up advance ecological civilization construction of views, and CPC Central Committee State on issued ecological civilization reform General Programme of notification requirements, for further promoted green development, promote economic structure adjustment optimization and development way speed up change, we developed has green bonds issued guidelines, now issued you. Please seriously implement file spirit, play Enterprise bonds financing role, active exploration using special construction fund, established green guarantees Fund, strengthening and related sector in energy-saving emissions, and environmental protection, and ecological construction, and should climate changes, field project voted financing aspects of coordination tie, efforts formed policy Heli, cracked resources environment bottleneck constraints, promoted development quality and benefits improve, speed up construction resources saving, and environment friendly type social.

Annex: the Green bond issue guidelines

For implement implementation party of 18 big and 18 session II in the, and three in the, and four in the, and v plenary spirit, according to CPC Central Committee State on speed up advance ecological civilization construction of views, and CPC Central Committee State on issued ecological civilization reform General Programme of notification requirements, active play Enterprise bonds financing on promote green development, and promoted energy-saving emissions, and solution highlight environment problem, and should climate changes, and development energy-saving environmental industry, support role, guide and encourages social input, Power way to accelerate the transformation of economic structure adjustment and optimization and development, these guidelines are formulated.

Focus, scope of application and supporting

Green bonds is refers to, raised funds main for support energy-saving emissions technology, and green town of, and energy clean efficient using, and new energy utilization, and cycle economic development, and water resources save and non-General water resources utilization, and pollution control, and ecological agricultural forestry, and energy-saving environmental industry, and low carbon industry, and ecological civilization first model experiment, and low carbon pilot model, green cycle low carbon development project of enterprise bonds. Current support focuses on:

(A) the energy conservation technical innovation project. Including ultra low emission and energy-saving renovation of coal-fired power plant, as well as waste heat warm heat and pressure, coal-fired boiler energy saving promotion reform, integrated motor system energy efficiency energy efficiency promotion, enterprise promotion, green lighting, and so on.

(B) the green towns project. Includes green building development, building industrial, energy-saving renovation of existing buildings, sponge city-building, smart grid, smart city construction building charging infrastructure construction, new energy vehicles and so on.

(C) the clean and efficient use of energy projects. Include high efficiency and clean utilization of coal, oil and other energy sources.

(D) the development and utilization of new energy projects. Including hydropower, wind power, nuclear power, solar energy, biomass energy, geothermal, shallow geothermal energy, ocean energy, air and other exploitation.

Related news:

PV is the Central Bank for inclusion in the list of green bonds support projects

(E) recycling economy development projects. Including industrial park loop transformation, waste utilization, agricultural cycle economy and manufacturing industry, etc.

(F) water resources conservation and utilization of non-conventional water resources projects. Include water saving, water (brackish water), desalination, water use, and so on.

(VII) pollution prevention and control projects. Including environmental infrastructure such as sewage waste, environmental problems such as air, water, soil management, hazardous waste, medical waste, industrial tailings disposal.

(H) the eco-agriculture and forestry projects. Including the development of organic agriculture, ecological agriculture, as well as the featured economic forest, Forest Economics, forest tourism and forest industries.

(I) the project of energy conservation and environmental protection industries. Includes energy saving and environmental protection industrialization of key equipment, technology, energy, energy saving and environmental protection industry base (Park) and so on.

(J) the low-carbon industrial projects. Including the national focus on the promotion of low-carbon technologies and equipment related to the industrialization, low carbon products production, low carbon services-related construction projects.

(11) the ecological civilization demonstration pilot projects. Including ecological demonstration area of resource conservation, recycling economic development, environmental protection and ecological construction and other projects.

(12) pilot demonstration projects on low-carbon development. Including low-carbon cities pilot, low carbon city (town) pilot, low carbon communities pilot, low carbon zone pilot low energy, low carbon industry low carbon, low-carbon transport, construction and other low-carbon infrastructure construction projects and carbon management platform.

I appointed according to the adjusted market financing green projects and green bonds support range, and continued innovation to launch new bonds in green development.

Second, the audit requirements

(A) in the relevant procedures in place, perfect debt protection measures on the basis of green bonds I “to accelerate and simplify the audit classes” bond review process and improve auditing efficiency.

(B) the enterprises to apply for issuance of green bonds, could adjust corporate bonds the current audit policy on overall strengthening of enterprises bond risk, and the number of observations contained in the part of the access conditions:

1 raise funds, bonds relaxed to 80% per cent total investment (rules on minimum capital restrictions except as otherwise required).

2, the issuance of green bonds index limits companies from issuing bonds.

3, on the premise of debt to asset ratio lower than 75%, approved debt does not examine the scale of enterprise credit products of other companies.

4, encouraging the issuance of green bonds of listed companies and its subsidiaries.

(Iii) to support the Green bond issuers to use bond funds optimum debt structure. In the case of debt protection measures to improve, allowing companies to use no more than 50% bonds to raise the money to repay Bank loans and supplement working capital. Better operation of the AA+ and the issuer credit rating, you can use the raise funds to replace high-cost debt generated by the built green project.

(Iv) issuers in accordance with item specifics of capital back into the scientific design of green bonds proposal supports reasonable flexibility in setting bonds, options, and debt service.

(E) third-party management business against environmental pollution River basin, regional or similar pollution-control projects, as well as energy-saving, water-saving service company to provide the service to obtain energy efficient, water-saving benefits of contract management mode for energy saving, water-saving transformation project, project proponents are encouraged to set forms of issuance of green bonds.

(Vi) allowed green bonds to institutional investors in a public offering. Non-public offering subscription to institutional investors not more than 200 people, single subscription of not less than 5 million Yuan, and must not use advertising, public solicitation and disguised public ways.

Related news:

PV is the Central Bank for inclusion in the list of green bonds support projects

Third, policies

(A) local governments should actively guide social capital involved in green projects, encouraging local governments through investment subsidies, guarantee subsidies, debt loans, funds and other means, support green bonds and green project implementation, has steadily increased the proportion of direct financing.

(B) broaden the channels of security increased. Allow projects unable to cover distribution of the total investment in the bond duration, and only in relation to project earnings and bond principal and interest guaranteed difference. Encourage the city-level (included) local governments to establish local green bonds secured by funds, earmarked to guarantee the issuance of green bonds. Encouraged the exploration of using carbon emission, emissions, use rights, water rights and other rights in proceeds, as well as intellectual property, green expected income pledged increased security methods.

(C) promoting green project “debt loan portfolio” enhance trust, encouraging commercial banks to bond and loan management. “Debt loan portfolio” in accordance with the “unified planning, debt financing and loan unified credit, dynamic long-term monitoring, risk management” model, financed by banks for enterprises to develop systematic plans, according to the financing needs of the project, unified the corporate bonds and loans into the banking credit management system, management imposed on debt financing.

(D) innovative active bonds. For a stable debt financing green projects, can be recycled in accordance with construction financing-investments-cash-closed operation modes, release project revenue bonds; a longer payback period of the project, support may be renewed or super long-term bonds.

(E) support eligible enterprises, green investment fund issues green bonds, earmarked for investing in green projects; support to eligible green investment fund shareholders or issuance of green bonds by limited partners, expand the scale of green investment fund capital.

(Vi) construction funding for green projects in full in place to encourage green projects with special construction funds and green combination of bond financing. Green projects have been allowed to issue Green bonds, and meets the conditions for investment, special construction funds in the central budget support, priority support.

Related news:

PV is the Central Bank for inclusion in the list of green bonds support projects

Original title: Executive Office of the national development and Reform Commission notice on guidelines on issuance of green bonds

Xbox One end has a new tour of the true Empire of 37

  Game hosts already on sale, but this game is too low, players are anxious. Now is not locked, but if you’re pure country also looked forward to, then wait for the three unique 7: Empire. INCIPIO iPhone 6 Case

Xbox One end has a new tour of the true Empire of 37

  Not long ago the three unique 7: finally have a trial of the Empire, made by bestv agent, so is the Xbox One games. Halo: Master Chief Xbox after the collection will no longer line up on One, the three unique 7: arrival of the Empire is letting the players had thought.

  The three unique 7: before the Empire based on the original, but focus on the system of the three kingdoms dominated the world, battles also increase the solo content, story is not as original as generals or Wei Shuwu, Jin and four countries. INCIPIO iPhone 6 Case

  PS4, McGuire also ushered in the gravity weight plate (in fact, is the gravity of Vertigo) and the interstellar armor master Edition. In addition, there are more niche games.

  Even if the new masterpiece debut, State game is still too little. Fortunately, DLC requirements as long as you are not too high, you want to play other games is not a problem.

[Article correction]

INCIPIO iPhone 6 Case

Collection is the collection of 1542

Tags: games Science and technology

If you need to reprint, you want the E-Mail authorization. annotated “source Yu Weifeng network”, an unauthorized reprint, lost chapter reprinted, and this website will be held accountable by law! E-Mail: QingXing@office.feng.com

Article read the PV inverter

Polaris solar PV net news: the working principle and characteristics

Working principle:

Core of the inverter, inverter switching circuit is, referred to as the Inverter circuit. The circuit through the power electronic switch turn-on and turn-off, to complete the function of the inverter.

Features:

(1) high efficiency is required.

Due to the current high price of solar cells, in order to maximize the use of solar cells, improve system efficiency, we must try to improve the efficiency of inverters.

(2) requires a higher reliability.

Current PV systems are mainly used in remote areas, many power stations unattended operation and maintenance, this requires that the inverter has a reasonable structure, strict selection of components, inverter and a variety of protective functions, such as: input reverse DC polarity protection, output short-circuit protection, overheat protection, overload protection and so on.

(3) require a wide input voltage range.

Due to the solar cell voltage with load and sunshine intensity varies. Especially when the storage battery aging big change of voltage, 12V battery, the voltage may vary between 10V~16V, which requires larger inverter DC input voltage range to ensure normal work.

Classification of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter

About classification of inverter method, for example: according to the inverter’s output AC voltage phase can be divided into single-phase three-phase inverters and inverter; according to the inverter using the semiconductor device types, inverters can be divided into the transistor, thyristor inverter and gate turn-off thyristor inverter and so on. According to the different principles of inverter circuits, also divided into self-oscillation type inverter, ladder wave type inverter and PWM inverter and so on. According to applications in grid-connected system is off grid systems can be divided into grid-connected inverters and off-grid inverters. In order to facilitate optical user selection of inverter, there were only one to classify the different application of the inverter.

1, centralized inverter

Concentrated inverse variable technology is several a parallel of PV group series was even to same Taiwan concentrated inverse variable device of DC entered end, general power big of using three-phase of IGBT power module, power smaller of using field effect transistor, while using DSP conversion controller to improved by output power of quality, makes it very close Yu sine wave current, General for large PV power station (>10kW) of system in the. Greatest feature is that the system of high power, low cost, but because of different PV string output voltage, current, often does not exactly match (especially PV string because of cloudy, shade, stains and other reasons are partially occluded), centralized inverter can cause the reverse process is less efficient and could decline. While PV system reliability of power generation as a whole under the influence of a PV Unit working state side. Latest research direction is using space vector modulation control and the development of topological connection to new inverter to get high efficiency under partial load.

2, string inverter

String inverter is based on a modular concept on the basis of each PV string (1-5kW) through an inverter, with maximum peak power tracking on the DC side, grid-connected parallel on the AC side, has become the most popular on the international market of inverters.

Many large PV power plants use string inverters. Advantages of group difference chuanjian module and hide the shadow does not affect, while reducing the amount of PV components work best and inverters do not match the conditions, thus increasing the generating capacity. These advantages in technology not only reduces costs, increases the reliability of the system. Meanwhile, in Group chuanjian inductive “master-slave” concept, which in a single series of power does not make a single inverter case, several groups of PV string together, one or several work to produce more electricity.

Latest concept for several inverters to form a “team” instead of “master-slave” concepts, making the reliability of the system and goes a step further. At present, the transformer-less string inverters have a dominant position.

3, micro-inverters

In traditional PV systems, each string inverter DC input, will be about 10 pieces of PV panels in series connection. When the panels in series 10, if a does not work well, then this series will be affected. If the inverter input using a MPPT, then the input will also be affected, significantly reduce the efficiency of power generation. In practice, clouds, trees, chimneys, animals, dust, snow and ice can cause blocking factors such as above, is very common. And in the micro-inverter PV system, each piece of access panels respectively a micro-inverter, as solar panels there is a not a good job, only this one will be affected. Other photovoltaic panels will run in top working condition, make the system more efficient, generating greater. In practice, if the string inverter fails, would cause thousands of Watts of solar panels don’t function, micro-inverter fault impact is very small.

4, power optimizer

Solar power system installed power optimizer (OptimizEr) can greatly increase conversion efficiency, and inverter (Inverter) functions make things simple to reduce costs. To achieve intelligent solar power systems, device power optimizer can best make for each solar cell efficiency and monitor the depletion of battery status at any time. Power optimizer is between power system between the inverter and the device, the main task is to replace the inverter, the best power point tracking capabilities. Power optimizer through the line was simplified and a single solar cell that corresponds to a power device or any other means, by analogy-best power point tracking for extremely fast scanning, then let each solar cell can indeed achieve the best power point tracking, in addition, can also take place communications chips anywhere, anytime monitoring battery status, instant return issues related to personnel maintenance as soon as possible.

Function of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter

Inverter not only have direct AC transformation functions, and maximizing the performance of solar cells functional and system failure protection functions. Summed up with an automatic running and stopping, maximum power point tracking control functions, and run the individual functions (used in grid-connected system), automatic voltage adjustment feature (used in grid-connected systems), DC detection feature (used in grid-connected systems), the DC system ground fault detection (grid-connected systems). Here brief introduction of function and maximum power point tracking control of automatic running and stopping capabilities.

(1) automatic running and stopping function

The morning after sunrise, solar radiation intensity increases, solar output increases, when once the output power of the inverter, the inverter automatically starts running. After entering the running, the inverter will always monitor the module output, as long as the module output power output power greater than required for inverter, inverter runs continuously until sunset down, even rainy days inverter can run. When the solar output smaller, inverter output close to 0 o’clock, inverter form standby.

(2) maximum power point tracking control

Solar output is with the intensity of solar radiation and the module temperature (temperature) changes. Because the module has the characteristics of voltage drops as the current increases, so get the best working point of maximum power. The solar radiation is changing, obviously the best work is also changing. With respect to these changes, always let the module working point is at the maximum power point, always obtain maximum power output from the solar modules of the system, which is the maximum power point tracking control. Inverter for solar power generation system’s greatest feature is including a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) this function.

PV grid-connected inverter of the main technical indicators

1. the stability of the output voltage

In photovoltaic systems, solar cells made electricity from a battery store, and then inverse inverter 220V or 380V AC. But under the influence of their charging and discharging of storage battery, changes its output voltage range, such as nominal 12V battery, the voltage values between 10.8~14.4V changes (beyond that may cause damage to battery). For a good inverter, when input voltage in this range, the steady-state output voltage variation should not exceed the nominal value of &Plusmn;5%, and when a mutation occurs when the load, the output should not exceed the rated value of voltage deviation ± 10%.

2. output voltage waveform distortion

Sine wave inverter, it should be provided the maximum allowed distortion (harmonic content). Usually expressed as a total distortion of the output voltage, and its value should not exceed 5% (single-phase output allows l0%). Due to the higher harmonics of the inverter output current will produce Eddy current inductive load such as additional losses if the inverter waveform distortion is too large, will lead to serious load part fever is not conducive to the safety of electrical equipment, and seriously affect the efficiency of the system.

3. rated frequency

Contain loads such as motors, such as washing machines, refrigerators and so on, due to its optimal frequency of motor work points to 50Hz, the frequency is too high or too low will cause the unit is hot, reduce operational efficiency and service life of the system, so the output frequency of the inverter should be a relatively stable value, usually a frequency 50Hz, under normal working conditions, the deviation should be less than &Plusmn;l%.

4. the load power factor

Characterization of inverter with inductive or capacitive load capability. Sine wave power inverters the load power factor is 0.7~0.9, rated value is 0.9. In the case of load power, if the inverter power factor is low, then the inverter capacity required will increase, resulting in increased costs on the one hand, and photovoltaic power system communication circuits increase, loop current increases, the losses will increase, reduced system efficiency.

5. inverter efficiency

Inverter efficiency refers to the provision of working conditions, the ratio of output power to input power, expressed as a percentage, typically, PV inverter nominal efficiency refers to a pure resistance load, 80% efficiency under load. Due to the overall higher cost of PV system, so you should maximize the efficiency of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter, reducing system cost, improving the performance of PV systems. Current inverter nominal efficiency between 80%~95%, requirements for small power inverter efficiency not less than 85%. PV system design in practice, not only to choose a highly efficient inverter, should be accompanied by proper configuration, try to make PV systems working near the best efficiency point.

6, rated output current (or nominal volume)

Specified load power factor within the rated output current of the inverter. Some inverter to rated output capacity of its units are expressed in VA or kVA. Is the rated capacity of the inverter when the power factor is 1 (that is, pure resistance load), the rated voltage for the rated output current of the product.

7, protection measures

A good performance of the inverter, it should also have complete protection or measures to deal with anomalies arising in actual use, the inverter itself and other parts of the system from damage.

(1) input under-voltage policy holders:

When the input voltage drops below the nominal voltage of the 85%, the inverter should be protected and displayed.

(2) input overvoltage policy holders:

When the input voltage is higher than the rated voltage 130%, the inverter should be protected and displayed.

(3) over current protection:

Inverter’s overcurrent protection, should guarantee the load short-circuit or action in a timely manner when the current exceeds the allowed value, against current surge damage. When the current exceeds the rated 150%, the inverter should be automatically protected.

(4) output short circuit of policy holders

Inverter short circuit protection shall be not more than 0.5s.

(5) input reverse polarity protection:

When the input is correct, when negative anti-, should have a protective function and display of the inverter.

(6) protection against Lightning:

The inverter should have lightning protection.

(7) over temperature protection.

In addition, the inverter without voltage stability measures, inverter output overvoltage protection measures, so that load received voltage of damage-free.

8. starting characteristics

Characterization of start-up of inverter load capability and dynamic performance at work. Inverter to ensure reliable starting under load.

9. noise

Electric and electronic equipment in the transformer, inductor, magnetic switch and fan components will produce noise. During normal operation of the inverter, the noise should not exceed 80dB, small inverter noise should be less than 65dB.

Selection tips

The selection of inverter, first consideration has sufficient capacity to meet the load requirements of equipment for electric power. For a single device for a load the inverter, its rating is simple.

When electrical equipment as a pure resistance load or power factors greater than 0.9, the selected inverter’s rated capacity is 1.1~1.15 times the capacity of electrical equipment will be allowed. While the inverter should have anti-capacitive and inductive load impact ability.

For inductive load, such as motors, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, power pumps, at the start, the instantaneous power may be 5~6 times its rated power, at this point, the inverter will be under a great deal of transient surges. For such systems, the rated capacity of the inverter should have a sufficient cushion to ensure that load reliable starting, high performance of inverter can be done multiple times in a row starting at full capacity without damaging the device. Small inverters for their own safety, sometimes using soft-start or current limited manner.

Installation, and maintenance

1, before installing should first check whether the inverter is damaged during shipping.

2, select an installation site, should ensure that there is no interference with other electronic devices around.

3, before making the electrical connections, must be using translucent material of photovoltaic panels cover or disconnect the DC circuit breaker. Exposure to the Sun, solar array will generate dangerous voltages.

4, all the installation must be done only by professional and technical personnel.

5, PV power generation system used in the cable must be firmly attached, good insulation as well as specification is appropriate.

Development trends

For solar inverters, and improve power conversion efficiency is an eternal subject, but when systems are more efficient, close to 100%, further efficiency improvements will be accompanied by low price and, therefore, how to keep a very high efficiency, while maintaining very good price competitiveness will be an important topic.

Compared with the inverter efficiency improvement efforts, and how to improve the efficiency of the inverter system as a whole, is becoming another important topic in the solar system. In a solar array, when enriched until the area of the shadow appears, use an inverter of MPPT function, the output power of the system at this time about bad 20% to appear even when power is reduced! in order to better adapt to such single or part of a solar panel, one or multiple MPPT MPPT control function is a very effective method.

Due to inverse variable system in grid run of status, system on to of leakage will caused serious of security problem; also, to improve system of efficiency, solar array column most will was series into is high of DC output voltage using; for, in electrode between for exception status of occurred, is easy produced out DC arc, due to DC voltage high, very not easy out arc, very easy led to fire. With the widespread adoption of Solar Inverter systems, security issues will also be an important part of inverter technology.

In addition, heading for a rapid development of smart grid technology in power systems and popular. A lot of new energy sources such as solar power systems, to the stability of the smart grid system raised new technical challenges. Design can more quickly and accurately and intelligently smart grid compatible inverter system, it will become necessary for Solar Inverter systems.

In General, the development of inverter technology is power electronics technology, and development of modern control theory and the development of microelectronics technology. With the passage of time, inverter technology is advancing to higher frequencies, more power, higher efficiency, smaller size direction.

Original title: photovoltaic grid-connected inverter

What are the factors affecting the efficiency of photovoltaic modules and

Polaris solar PV net news: first, the attenuation of the components:

Photo-induced effect of attenuation, also known as S-W. A-Si:H film a long time strong light or electricity through, in its internal defects and the film’s performance, called the StaEbler-Wronski effect (D.L.Staebler and C.R.Wronski was first discovered. Personal think PV component of attenuation actual is wafer performance of attenuation, first wafer in long-term has oxygen bad border in the will occurred slow chemical reactions was oxidation, to reduced performance, this is component long-term attenuation of main reasons; in vacuum forming process in the will to must proportion doping boron (hole) and p (to body), improve wafer of carrier migration rate, to improve component performance, but boron as deficiency electronic Atomic will and oxygen Atomic (to body) occurred composite reaction, reduced carrier migration rate, to reduced component of performance, This is the main reason about components Attenuation of 2% for the first year.

Attenuation of the components are divided into:

1 due to disruptive factors have contributed to the sudden decline in the power and destructive factors mainly refer to components in the welding process the welding side, package process exists for lack or components during installation of the handling, mishandling, or components used in the process crash caused by hail component cracked, cell serious fragmentation phenomena;

2, initial components of light attenuation, PV module power output at the beginning of larger declines occurred within the first few days of use, but then stabilized, generally below 2%;

3, the aging degradation of a component, that is, in the long run extremely slow power loss phenomena in annually decay in 0.8%, attenuation of 25 does not exceed 20%; 25 efficiency quality assurance is already in Japan and Germany on the components of two solar companies are confirmed. Domestic PV modules have been able to meet the requirements after 2012, production of photovoltaic modules and equipment and materials for basic imported from West Germany.

Second, the efficiency of the system:

(Think decay regardless of system efficiency, and reduce system efficiency, we can be achieved through local or equipment maintenance requirements, such as thermal power stations, hydroelectric plants, not to mention the attenuation of this statement.

Are the key factors affecting the power generation efficiency, system efficiency of main factors to be considered are: dust, rain shelter caused by inefficient, thermal efficiency, component series mismatch is less efficient, inverter, DC AC power loss parts cables power losses, tracking systems, transformer power loss of precision, and so on.

1) caused by dust, rain shelter inefficient

Large-scale photovoltaic power plants are generally located in the Gobi region, large sand, and rarely consider managers cleaned array components are frequently under normal circumstances, attenuation values: 8%;

2) thermal efficiency

Solar component will for temperature changes and output voltage reduced, and current increases, component actual efficiency reduced, electricity reduced, so, temperature caused of efficiency reduced is must to consider of a important factors, in design Shi consider temperature changes caused of voltage changes, and according to the changes select component series number, guarantee component can in most time within work in maximum track power range within, consider 0.45%/K of power changes, and consider the months irradiation volume calculation weighted average value, Can be calculated from the weighted average value, there are some differences due to different ambient temperature, system there were certain differences in temperature reduce system efficiency values for 3%.

3) component series mismatch is less efficient

Due to production problems, resulting in power and current there is a certain deviation between different components, single battery pack has little effect on the system, but after grid-connected photovoltaic power station is made up of many solar module and parallel composition, between power and current bias for PV power generation efficiency will have some effect. Of inconsistent components in series as the current efficiency, select the reduce the efficiency of 2%.

4) DC cable power loss

According to the design experience, conventional 20MWP project uses special cables for photovoltaic grid-connected PV power generation is about 350km, combiner box to DC power cable distribution cabinets (General use model ZR-YJV22-1kV-2*70mm2) amount of about 35km, DC portion of the cable was obtained by calculating loss 3%.

5) inverter power loss

Current domestic production of high power inverter (500kW) efficiency are up 97.5% system efficiency, grid-connected inverters without transformer type, through the double split transformer isolation 2 parallel inverter, the inverter is not considered internal transformer efficiency, inverter power loss can be 97.5%, 97.5%.

6) AC power cable loss

Because of grid-connected photovoltaic power stations generally use local boost for AC line cable is usually a high voltage cable, that part of the loss is small, calculated the Exchange portion of the cable loss is about 1%.

7) transformer power loss

Transformer for a mature product, selection of high efficiency transformer, transformer efficiency is 98%, that is about 2% power loss.

Power loss in the above sections, measure the efficiency of the system: the loss of dust component, component temperature efficiency losses, component mismatch loss, voltage drop, inverter efficiency, step-up transformer efficiency, loss of the AC line, you can calculate efficiency of PV systems:

System efficiency: η = (1-8%) * (1-3%) * (1–2) * (1-3%) * (1-2.5%) * (1-1%) * (1–2) =80.24%.

Following this analysis, we can draw the efficiency of photovoltaic grid-connected power systems typically 80%.

Original title: what are the factors affecting the efficiency of photovoltaic modules and systems?

Win7 Professional Edition and Win8 1 next October stop sale

Win7 Professional Edition and Win8.1 next October stop sale

  On November 4, according to foreign media reports, according to the official “Introduction to Windows product lifecycle” page shows, Microsoft will end October 31, 2016, Windows 7 Professional and Windows 8.1 OEM PC sales. In other words, that want to buy comes pre-loaded with Windows 7 or Windows 8.1 consumer computer products will only make a decision in less than a year’s time. Vans waffle iPhone case

  After October 31, 2016, consumers want to buy a PC pre-installed Windows operating system product, only Windows 101 species of choice. Of course, users who purchased Microsoft volume licensing will not be limited by this deadline, it will still be based on Protocol select the preinstalled Windows system version.

  Microsoft set a deadline for submitting the above, mainly in the hope that more and more to the current content to users of the Windows 7 operating system “pressure” to stimulate the purchase of a new PC. Microsoft had earlier set for the new operating system, Windows 10 “1 billion to install equipment” ambitious goals, stimulate users to upgrade to the new system is one of the important measures for achieving that goal. Vans cases

  In fact, Windows 7 sales cycle has been extended by two years. By Convention, Microsoft’s new operating system is released next year, is usually the last versions of Windows you want to end a sales opportunity. In other words, Windows 7 back in October 2014, namely Windows 8 release for two years, was supposed to stop sales. However, because Windows 8 controversy, Microsoft finally had to extend Windows 7 sales cycles to settle consumer grievances.

  Sales cycle and support cycle are different concepts, so that already in use and want to continue to use Windows 7 users do not need to worry about. Extend the Windows 7 technical support will close until January 14, 2020, period, Microsoft will ensure all security updates and bug fixes. In addition, extended technical support is Windows 8 will not end until January 10, 2023.

[Article correction]

Collection is the collection of 1542

Vans cases

Tags: Internet

Blockbuster National Energy Board expanding the scope of PV implementation for

Arctic star solar PV network news: this (6) day, National Energy Council website released on issued speed up poverty area energy development construction advance poverty storming implementation views of notification, requirements implement Central poverty development workshop spirit and the CPC Central Committee State on won poverty battle of decided requirements, further do energy poverty work, implementation six big focus task, including precision implementation PV poverty engineering, to 2020 completed 2 million built document state card poor PV poverty project construction.

Views on the clear, expanding the scope of PV implementation for poverty alleviation, on the basis of the existing pilot work, to continue to broaden the scope of PV poverty. In good light conditions (average annual utilization hours of over 1100 hours) in 15 provinces (districts) 451 counties 35,700 file state PV poverty alleviation within the poor villages. By 2020, achieve 2 million archived State card poor household income more than 3000 goal.

Meanwhile, efforts to increase support, continue to refine PV project list and demand estimates, multi-channel support, expanded PV project finance for poverty alleviation. All provinces (autonomous regions) in counties prepare for PV implementation for poverty alleviation, according to the procedure for approval before implementation.

Encourage photovoltaic power generation combined with planting, livestock breeding, making full use of barren hills, slopes, ponds, greenhouses, agricultural facilities, increasing the incomes of the poor.

Following is the notification text:

National planning [2015]452

National Energy Board on speeding up the construction of energy development in the poor areas to promote the implementation of poverty alleviation crucial views

To implement the poverty reduction Working Conference, energy into full play the fundamental role in the development and construction in the poverty battle, promoting economic development and improving people’s livelihood in the poor areas, and synchronized into a well-off society, according to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council’s decision on winning the poverty battle, these observations are formulated.

Construction, fully understanding to accelerate energy development to win the important battle for poverty eradication

The basic conditions of energy is indispensable for the production of modern life, without adequate and reliable energy security, it is impossible to truly build a well-off society. Raise energy level of universal service in poverty areas, is an essential requirement of moderately well-off society, rational use of energy resources in poor areas, are important ways to drive economic development in the poor areas and improve people’s livelihood. At present, the moderately well-off society to enter a run-off stage, poverty alleviation and development entered a period of biting hard bone, hard pull Zhai Sprint, speed up the development and utilization of energy resources in poor areas and infrastructure, promote resource advantage into economic development as soon as possible, for the people in poor areas to create the necessary conditions for production and living, energy sector duty and mission.

Second, the overall requirements

Guiding ideology

In-depth implement party of 18 big and 18 session three in the, and four in the, and v plenary spirit, implementation Central poverty development workshop and CPC Central Committee State on won poverty battle of decided deployment, insisted precision poverty, and precision poverty, around full built well-off social of total target, innovation thought, and mechanism and method, take non-General initiatives, to speed up poverty area energy development construction, to improve energy General Service level, effective solution poverty area production life with can problem, promote economic development and livelihood improved, Winning a battle, to make the poor out of poverty areas with national synchronization into a well-off society provide reliable energy security.

The basic principles

Adhere to the principles of goal-oriented. Intensify the overall conception, goals, tasks, and planning in construction of energy development, with poverty eradication a critical, comprehensive into combining the overall goal of a well-off society, obey and serve the needs of winning the poverty battle.

Upholding the principle of accurate poverty alleviation. Focus on pro-poor focus areas, key object, point to file state energy poverty on the poor, in particular loss of ability to work and on the ability of poor people out of poverty, focusing on the poor accuracy.

Persist in reform and innovation principles. Take an unconventional approach in resource development, funding support, project layout, compensation policies, sharing mechanisms and other aspects, to old revolutionary areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas and even impoverished areas.

Uphold the principle of according to local conditions. From poor areas, such as energy resources, environmental capacity based on basic conditions, comply with the law, in-depth research, adoption of appropriate local energy poverty, pragmatic.

Main objectives

By 2020, the national energy universal service was significantly improved in rural areas, poor electric universal service levels meet the province’s current (district, municipal) average level realizing rural supply coverage; completed 2 million archived State card poor construction of photovoltaic projects. Tongwei County, Gansu province, Clearwater County, take off your hat in poor counties.

Third, key tasks

Continued implementation of the rural power grid upgrading project

To perfect and publish on the implementation of the second round of the upgrading of rural power grids, and increase the Central investment, Quicken the process of urban and rural power grid construction and equalization of the universal service.

Implementation of rural power grid construction in Xinjiang, Tibet and Tibetan regions of four provinces and battle. Speed up the isolated town of networking processes, accelerate extending electricity grids to the village. All of Tibet and Tibetan areas of Qinghai County networking or build renewable energy local power grid, basic coverage in agricultural and pastoral area power grid, built to the rural village of complete rural power grid, significantly improve the capacity and quality.

Speed up the upgrading of rural power network in poor counties in the Western region. Accelerating national poverty alleviation and development in key counties in the Western region, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, concentrated piece of special hardship, such as in the dabie Mountains area upgrading of rural power network, focus on low voltage, grid is not reasonable, the lack of power and so on. Combined with the new energy projects for poverty alleviation in poor areas and micro-grid construction, improving rural power grids to dissolve distributed renewable energy generation capacity.

Strengthen rural power grid upgrading in poor Eastern and central areas. In the poor Eastern and central areas, the steady implementation of rural power grid upgrading, and gradually raise the intelligence of rural power network, providing power protection for modern agriculture, development of rural industries.

Promoting rural electric power diversified investment. Services provided by the non-State-owned power company and poor conditions in poor areas, the State-owned power company shares and increase the local power grid and security standards. In the Western power grid coverage to remote areas, encourage non-grid energy companies use local hydro, solar, wind and other renewable energy, building renewable energy as the main power distribution network in County, build integration and placement in renewable clean energy system of the town.

Speed up the implementation of the rural power full coverage works

Development and implementation of the upgrading of rural power network planning in poor areas. Increase policy and financial support, according to higher standards of construction, building and rebuilding line and distribution area in the poor areas, enhance the level of power in poor areas to achieve power in poor areas covered.

Enhanced relocation of regional electric power construction. Combined with the action of the distribution plan and the upgrading of rural power network, providing high standards of service for relocation settlements, moved to where power to follow up where.

Precise implementation of PV poverty reduction project

Expanding the scope of PV implementation for poverty alleviation. On the basis of the existing pilot work, to continue to broaden the scope of PV poverty. In good light conditions (average annual utilization hours of over 1100 hours) in 15 provinces (districts) 451 counties 35,700 file state PV poverty alleviation within the poor villages. By 2020, achieve 2 million archived State card poor household income more than 3000 goal.

Increase the intensity of support. Continue to refine the PV project list and demand estimates, multi-channel support, expanded PV project finance for poverty alleviation. All provinces (autonomous regions) in counties prepare for PV implementation for poverty alleviation, according to the procedure for approval before implementation.

Give priority to energy development and construction projects

Layout tilt. The energy development “Thirteen-Five” set up poverty alleviation crucial chapters in the planning, energy planning will be crucial as poverty in important content, clear objectives for the next five years for poverty reduction in the energy sector, task planning leading role into full play, guiding social resources to focus on poverty, focused work. Connection of energy planning at the provincial level and approval, to drive around more important location on the energy construction in poor areas.

Tilt funding arrangements. Alteration of power NET in the central budget for investment in old revolutionary areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas and even impoverished areas. Power enterprises should continue to increase the size of rural power grid upgrading self-financing.

Project lean. Coal, coal power, oil and gas, utilities and other major resource development and utilization projects, cross-regional major energy transmission corridor projects, as well as wind, solar and other renewable energy projects, under the same conditions to give priority to planning construction in poor areas.

Support clean energy. Encourage photovoltaic power generation combined with planting, livestock breeding, making full use of barren hills, slopes, ponds, greenhouses, agricultural facilities, increasing the incomes of the poor. Increase the intensity of comprehensive utilization of agricultural and forest residues, and encouraging rural diversification of energy supplies.

And Manpower introduced preferential policies for poverty reduction

Universal service of electricity compensation mechanism. In conjunction with the departments concerned and establish financial compensation mechanism of the electric universal service in remote ethnic minority areas, introduced preferential fiscal policies to address population fewer, smaller power shortage of rural power network operation and maintenance costs in remote areas, support universal service work in power grid enterprises.

Adjust income distribution policies to improve the energy resource development. In the more disadvantaged areas of coal, oil and gas, hydro, wind, solar and other energy resource development efforts at the same time, establish special policies to the distribution of benefits of energy resource development in the poor areas, and let local people benefit more from the development of energy resources. Exploration assets income support, in the case of change of use, specific financial aid funds and other agriculture-related funding photovoltaic, hydroelectric project of assets formed, qualified Folding Unit to quantify in poor villages and poor households, especially the incapacity of the poor.

Explore the establishment of hydro-benefit-sharing mechanisms. Increase the proportion of hydropower projects in poor areas retained power, derived from power, funding priority for resettlement and development area. Hydropower development in poor areas occupy land, try out the original inhabitants collective equity compensation, let the poor share for hydropower resources development gains.

Continue to strengthen poverty alleviation work

Develop support plans. Meet provincial development and Reform Commission and in tongwei County, Gansu Province Government in Qingshui County, two counties out of poverty a critical planning work points of year annual support, help from energy projects, energy infrastructure development, social aspects of development, to strengthen power within the two counties out of poverty.

Accelerate the construction of energy projects. Promote the tongwei County, development of wind power resources in Qingshui County, support for clean water green energy demonstration County construction, increase its support for poverty alleviation counties PV anti-poverty work. Continue to increase the intensity of alteration of power NET in two counties, constantly improve the quality of local supply conditions and to achieve power full coverage.

Strengthen manpower and social business for poverty alleviation. Strengthen the support and intelligence help to continue to select excellent cadres to the counties on attachment, as well as in the poor village as first Secretary. Targeted organizations support education, training, lectures and other activities. Continue to follow County transport, health, education and livelihood projects, such as construction, coordinate and solve problems, accelerating the construction schedule.

Four, implement

Strengthen organization and leadership

The various departments and units should fully understand the extreme importance and arduousness of hard work out of poverty, under the unified leadership of the party, further play the role of the leading group for poverty alleviation, improve the coordination mechanism, form a joint force to jointly promote the hard work out of poverty.

Full force

Implementation of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council called for in the decision on the winning the poverty battle, perfect “settings and functions of the poverty relief and development agencies, full equipped with high levels of poverty alleviation and development power”, increasing the staffing of the Office of the leading group for poverty alleviation. All departments and units to match the political quality good, professional staff, dealing with poor links link works.

Clear division of responsibilities

The various departments and units leading comrades in charge of poverty alleviation responsibility for this unit, according to this guidance Division of tasks, responsibility to break down tasks into one, establish task assessment form, helping the poor for poverty alleviation project repository, ensure to complete the task.

Strengthening the supervision and assessment

Poverty alleviation work as an important part of the global annual work, into the scope of performance appraisal of cadres, strengthen supervision and examination. Unfinished units responsible for the Division of tasks and, as appropriate, give the appropriate accountability.

Discipline rules

Strengthen the supervision on rural power grid upgrading cost, to rein in power grid enterprise related transactions, ensuring the quality at the same time, reduce the cost. Strengthening poverty alleviation policies, funding, projects, materials distribution, investment and the use of precision, strict procedures and restraint mechanism, resolutely prevent and eradicate poverty as some enterprises and individuals for personal gain opportunities and means found to check it out, firmly punished. Departments on pro-poor policies, funding, projects to strengthen supervision, discipline and policies intended to provinces, cities, counties, townships, villages, and individuals to realize Sun poverty alleviation.

PS: the National Energy Board on speeding up the construction of energy development in the poor areas to promote the implementation of poverty alleviation crucial opinion on Division of tasks

PV financial insurance will arouse what kind of sparks

Polaris solar PV net news: in recent years, the rapid development of PV industry in China, 2014 PV solar module production in China of more than 33 million-kilowatt, product sales in the world’s first, has become one of the most competitive industries in the world. In the process of rapid development of the domestic photovoltaic industry, including insurance, risk management is improving, including light irradiation index insurance, PV performance guarantee insurance and a series of emerging risks associated with the PV industry.

In this one, due to compensate photovoltaic modules photovoltaic efficiency guarantee insurance in 25 did not meet the component manufacturers in the process of using the promise of output power power loss caused, effectively shifting component production manufacturers liability due to quality problems, is widely recognized by PV module manufacturing enterprises. But this is a insurance with good demand, domestic insurance companies have very few companies willing to underwrite, the reasons, mainly insurance companies that the insurance business too risky.

In fact, photovoltaic performance guarantee insurance, the insurance industry is of far-reaching strategic significance. First, the PV performance guarantee insurance has good market prospects, PV industry as an important global energy technology and industrial development, has great potential as a development, the growth of the photovoltaic industry for PV performance guarantee insurance has brought a good opportunity.

Second, PV effectiveness guarantee insurance conform to has market needs, according to national energy Council data displayed, China now has became global maximum of PV battery producer, and 70% above component export Europe, and Japan,, export products for quality requirements very strictly, also many abroad PV power station investors often will requirements domestic component manufacturers for component purchase effectiveness guarantee insurance, for component manufacturers,, this insurance species of needs is very urgent of.

Again, the photovoltaic performance guarantee insurance can increase competitive advantage of insurance companies, currently on the market can take PV performance guarantee insurance company, very few, can take up this insurance can not only enhance the insurance company competition advantages in the process, but also increase customer stickiness, improved customer reputation. In addition, at this stage of my various insurance companies in general insurance, property insurance, cargo insurance and other insurance planted by fierce competition, full use of the advantage of emerging risks can effectively drive PV enterprises property insurance general insurance underwriting.

PV performance guarantee insurance for insurance companies to develop new markets is of great significance for China’s PV industry growth, also has a positive effect. 2000 before and after, due to PV component industry of profiteering and local government blind of foster policy, domestic PV component enterprise as have sprung up like take out, capacity excess, market competition disorder, although after 2013 years into “double anti-” dilemma and abroad export market recession of fittest of “Shuffle” process, situation still not optimistic, if through insurance third party of intervention, can let quality excellent enterprise of products more has competitiveness, natural eliminated low quality PV enterprise, can enhanced PV industry advantage.

Insurance play role, mainly implemented by. Module manufacturer first before the insured need to filter through underwriting quality control system to improve the backbone enterprises, product quality, refusing to insure bad businesses, effective component quality, poor business. The second was after the underwriting, insurance companies to monitor the production processes, sampling of the component products, effectively improving the quality level of manufacturer components. Third is when manufacturers because of quality problems are claims, insurance compensation can reduce the financial fluctuations, steady, continuous operation of the enterprise.

Insurance through the quality of component manufacturers “endorsement” and make up for losses after the accident, can effectively secure a high quality business position in the market, meanwhile, was formed by insurance lead to market incentives to promote PV industry structure adjustment and survival of the fittest. PV performance guarantee insurance for both insurance companies and is the component business is a bigger meaning, but since 2012 yingda taihe insurance co-Aon-insurance broker jointly developed this kind of insurance, did not achieve the intended three-year domestic market development, but better not well attended.

According to research, insurance, terms are reported aspects of the product, currently only has ping an property insurance, Pacific property insurance, yingda taihe finished a handful of insurance companies insurance such as property insurance report terms and PICC as industry leader, for the lack of interest in this kind of insurance products have not been reported. Within the insurance company for this type of insurance policy, except yingda taihe insurance more active role, the other companies are more cautious.

Ping an property insurance property insurance industry ranks second as an example, ping an insurance in October 2014 signed the industry’s first single, take Wuxi Suntech solar module efficiency guarantee insurance business, and does not cover other similar business. Safe move is to play brand, not internal underwriting policy to let go. Another industry giant, Pacific property insurance, although at the end of 2014 reporting articles, but so far there is no underwriting case also reflects the attitude of insurance companies from the side.

Domestic insurance companies will be willing to offer the types of subjects fewer underwriting policy more carefully, lack of willingness to underwrite for this kind of insurance because insurance companies risk concerns.

First, market risk, many component manufacturers in China, varying levels of production and operation, component quality control levels of scientific and rational filter may cover enterprises, becoming the first problem faced by insurance companies.

Second is insurance risk, so-called insurance risk is refers to in policyholders insured and payment zhihou, insurer that to bear which brings of business risk, this insurance species of insurance risk is highlight, main reflected in following several aspects: a is premium rates determined risk, rates determined is to established loss data based Shang of, due to PV industry rise time more short, very rare over 25 years of PV component loss history data, which led to loss to pre sentenced, then effect rates determined. In addition, this insurance as a new kind of insurance underwriting personnel lack of insurance risk perception and experience, would inevitably lead to miscarriage risk probability multiplied, and types of insurance period is longer, after many years it would take, and underwriting risks is very prominent.

Third, a 25-year period of responsibility, once this insurance cover, insurance company will have to bear the liability for compensation of 25 years, 25, how much compensation is expected, there is no scientific evaluation and expected, the insurance company underwriting the policy has had a very big impact.

Insurance industry as financial services, meet customer of needs is insurance industry exists of value, coupled with this insurance species for PV industry of meaning, for exists doubts will not into this insurance species business is not desirable of, can reference abroad insurance company this insurance planted of business experience, through and third party cooperation, way, gradually discourage doubts, opened this insurance species, for PV industry of health development provides support.

First, the introduction of third party support

According to PV module manufacturers many manufacturers, this challenge is difficult to filter customers of insurance companies, PV modules can be introduced into a third party inspection body, Germany TuV Rheinland, to test the module manufacturers cover the intention to ensure that vendors meet underwriting requirements, reduce the probability of danger in the late. In addition, according to underwriting underwriting staff lack experience, and so on, can be introduced into international reinsurance company, through cooperation with reinsurers with experience, learn and accumulate experience in insurance underwriting, operating experience.

Second, the gradual accumulation of historical loss data

Emerging insurance coverage offered to meet the gradual process, must fully grasp the subject based on the insurer’s risk factors and accumulation on the basis of historical data. In the case of domestic property insurance companies lack data, you can choose to cooperate with research institutions in PV modules, such as product testing and certification bodies, universities and other research institutions, and attenuation data collected the previous components effectiveness, study on the effectiveness of the use of PV, and gradually establish a loss model. After this, reasonable in screening customers based on appropriate products within the PV industry to undertake high quality businesses, accumulate operating experience.

Thirdly, by setting a reasonable amount of insurance risk

Early view of the new-type open and all the uncertainty, insurance companies blindly offer products not in accordance with their risk management capabilities, have a serious impact on future business, therefore, you can set a reasonable insurance solutions, such as setting a reasonable deductible, and component manufacturers to risk-sharing, or to set up a reasonable compensation limits, determine the pay Cap.

Original title: PV module + financial insurance: will arouse what kind of sparks