Ukraine Chernobyl exclusion zone solar power plant started the global bidding

Polaris solar PV net news: Ukraine State quarantine Authority announced on 15th of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, now started to “Chernobyl solar power plant” building a global tender of the land needed for the project.

Ukraine National announcement in the official website of the area of the Chernobyl nuclear accident Authority said this is the first tender of construction land, a total of 1172 hectares of land will be used for the solar power plant phase I project. Saying that the Ukrainian Government welcomes domestic and foreign investors actively bidding, priority and had experience in PV power plant construction and operation of the company. The bid closing date is January 1, 2017.

Chernobyl solar power project is the Ukrainian Government to develop large-scale energy projects, aimed at the rational use of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the area of unused land and transmission infrastructure, covers a total area of 2500 hectares. Region in which the project is located in the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant reactor 4th 10 km south of, have already reached the normal level of radiation block. According to preliminary estimates, the project power will reach 1200 MW (1.2 million-kilowatt) upon completion, would generate an annual revenue of € 120 million to 130 million. According to the current solar power technology, 1-MW solar panels of the size of about two hectares of land for construction purposes.

In October this year, Wu xiemeilake, Minister of ecology and natural resources to the outside world, black square with two Chinese companies–China engineering limited and Concord group discussions on the project. The two Chinese companies have publicly expressed interest in jointly involved in this project, and plans to invest US $1 billion.

On April 26, 1986, in Ukraine the northern part near the Belarus border unit of 4th at the Soviet Chernobyl reactor suddenly exploded, killing 30 people killed and over 8 tons of radioactive leaks. The accident contaminated more than 60,000 square kilometers of land around the plant, more than 3.2 million people to varying degrees against nuclear radiation, making it by far the most serious accident in human history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

At present, the Chernobyl radiation values of large tracts of land in the area has returned to normal. In July, the Ukrainian Parliament passed a law to amend the regulations of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the area of economic and social activity, for the development of the area of separation removed obstacles. On November 29, the unit covered in the 4th reactor of the new bunkers have been officially completed, creating conditions for further control and eliminate the effects of nuclear contamination.

Original title: Chernobyl exclusion zone will be built in solar power plant

2016 solar increases and prices are better than wind power

Polaris solar PV net news: the end of 2016, the shift in the global energy market is worth paying attention to. Solar power for the first time become the cheapest form of electricity.

According to the latest Bloomberg new energy finance data, only small independent projects can happen, such as the Middle East, a highly competitive auction brings record low cost of solar energy. But now, solar is starting to exceed on a larger scale that is not subsidized coal and natural gas, particularly in the emerging markets the cost for new solar projects under construction wind power project.

“The minimal quantity of solar energy from 5 years ago to today’s mass. “Bloomberg new energy finance United States policy analysis Director of EthanZindler said,” a large amount of investment is mostly from China, China has witnessed the rapid deployment of solar energy, and help other countries in project financing. ”

2016 solar has achieved remarkable development. Electricity bid a record beyond the previous lowest price solar records. First January India $64 per MWh of electricity contracts since August is 29.1 dollars/MWh Chile project. The record price is about half of the coal power to compete.

These new contracts this year, and a large number of projects to be completed this year. When all completed 2016 project included in the next few months, global new production for the first time beyond the wind turbine. The latest forecasts by Bloomberg new energy finance, 2016 added capacity of 70 gigawatts of new solar and wind power only 59 GW.

Overall transition to clean energy in richer countries are more expensive, smooth where power demand, coupled with new solar power must compete and billions of dollars of existing coal and gas power plants. But in countries where new power capacity as soon as possible, renewable energy will beat other power generation technology.

In recent years, the world has experienced a turning point, and increase the capacity of clean energy each year than coal and gas power generation total incremental. Within the next 10 years, fossil fuel power generation may be peaking.

Original title: 2016 solar increases and prices are better than wind power

Polaris solar PV NET week news highlights 12 12 12 16

Polaris solar PV net news: policy review

1. National Energy Board releases solar “Thirteen-Five plan”

 To promote the sustained and healthy development of solar energy industry, speed up the diversified use of solar energy, promoting the building of a clean and low carbon, secure and efficient modern energy system, the National Energy Board issued a circular solar development “Thirteen-Five” plan. By the end of 2020, solar power installed capacity reached 110 million kW, of which, photovoltaic power installed capacity reached more than 105 million kW, in “Twelve-Five” annually to maintain stable development based on scale solar thermal power installed capacity up to 5 million-kilowatt. Solar thermal collector area reached 800 million square meters.

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2. the energy Bureau of Jiangxi Province: the continued suspension of the new normal PV project recording

Recently, the energy Bureau of Jiangxi province, issued the Declaration on strengthening safe production management in renewable energy projects across the province issued an emergency notice, (hereinafter “the notice”), the notice requirements strictly regulate renewable electric power project management, coupled with good management of safety production of renewable electricity projects. Specification for PV power generation projects for the record, did not start ordinary terrestrial photovoltaic power station in the province before the competitive allocation of work, wants to stop new ordinary photovoltaic project for the record, make alert, no construction plans starts to order the immediate suspension of the project itself.

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3. Anhui province for 2016 first served list of distributed PV option public

In accordance with the perfect build-first management of distributed PV power station (Anhui new energy (2016), 13th), Hefei municipal development and Reform Commission reported in feixi macros such as Hui Fei XI Feng Le 20MW Yue Kwong complementarity 54 projects such as photovoltaic power generation project, to be applied for inclusion for 2016 first built-first variant directory, are hereby published.

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4. the Fujian in 2014 and 2015 into country fill list of photovoltaic power stations projects

In recent days, and hydropower planning and design of water conservancy Institute of Fujian Province issued the confirmation in 2014 and 2015 the letters PV implementation programmes, 2014 PV power generation projects, Fujian province, 47, 2015 solar electricity generation project 17.

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6. for 2016-2018, Foshan City, Guangdong completed PV project incentives and benefits

To further accelerate the city’s photovoltaic power generation project construction, promote photovoltaic applications scale effects, municipal people’s Government had agreed to the city’s existing PV Application projects support policies for extended for 3 years, built on 2016-2018 of PV Application projects with incentives and benefits, and incentives and benefits extended to the whole area of distributed PV Application projects and photovoltaic power stations on the ground.

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5. Zhejiang Wencheng enabling distributed PV: subsidies at least 0.2 Yuan/degrees even at the county level make up 5

“Five concept” to lead, vigorously promote the use of distributed solar power projects and improve distributed PV scale, encourage and promote County-level organs, enterprises and institutions, large shopping malls (the market) and key energy-using units and inhabitants distributed photovoltaic roof application. By 2018, the County distributed total installed PV power capacity of 20 MW.

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Market review

1.2016 5 November for the record 14 photovoltaic project in Shanxi province (table)

2016 5 November, the Commission filed a total of Shanxi 157 projects, PV projects 14. List is as follows:

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2. PV inverter 80% market share controlled by the top players

GTM Research’s latest report shows that global PV inverter market is concentrated, and top manufacturers ‘ shipments in the first half of the year accounted for more than 80%. In fact, the top five manufacturers of inverter shipments of more than half of the world.

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3. National Energy Board report on the November 12398 supervision hotline complaints handling related PV 1

In November, the National Energy Board hotline 12398 energy regulation (hereinafter referred to as 12398 hotline) received a total of 2,463 effective information, reduce 7.26% per cent. New and renewable energy industry reflects the main issues include: parts of distributed photovoltaic grid-connected power generation project payment is not timely.

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4.22 photovoltaic business “exit” central price undertakings export volume accounted for more than 90%

As of now, there are 22 Chinese companies in EU’s photovoltaic double reverse in which was cancelled, or active out of the price undertakings. “These companies accounted for China PV export price above 90%. “One person in the PV industry, told reporters.

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5. middle reaches of PV prices weakened significantly before the Chinese new year will continue to go down

According to EnergyTrend watch, in December China’s domestic demand still more support, overseas multicrystalline silicon wafer, solar cell prices fell significantly in price in the mid-and expected decline will continue before the lunar new year.

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6. Zhejiang Provincial Development and Reform Commission issued the 2016 list of additional construction of the second batch of key PV projects

Recently, the Zhejiang Provincial Development and Reform Commission issued the second batch of key construction projects of the 2016 list of additional notice. (Hereinafter notice), updating the key construction projects in the province a total of 86, 155 billion yuan of total investment. Among them, the PV project 8.

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7. PV carbon emissions: 2015 global average of 20 g/kWh

In considering a PV module production circumstances of time and place, Dr Wilfriedvan Sark’s team calculated 1975 global PV modules within the full life-cycle (say 30) average 400-500 grams of carbon emissions per kilowatt hour in 2015 and PV modules within the life cycle of the global average of only 20 grams of carbon emissions per kilowatt hour.

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8. the PV power plant in Guangxi repository list

Recently, the energy Bureau of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, issued the notice on adjusting the PV power plant in Guangxi reserve items list, new Guangxi “2016” 31st document.

2016 PV power plant in Guangxi reserve library items is five minus five, a total of 24.

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Enterprise version

1. the Internet giant “marriage” of new energy

The International Energy Agency (IEA) 2000-2030 international power demand studies have shown, new energy generation annual growth the fastest. Now, the boom in the development of new energy, outside a giant Internet companies also are turning to new energy fields.

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2. shut down four years later ‘ 2 billion expansion financing polysilicon project in Erdos is questioned

Inner Mongolia eerduosi resources limited liability company (hereinafter “Ordos”) holding subsidiary–Inner Mongolia eerduosi polycrystalline silicon industry Co Ltd (hereinafter “company”) has disclosed, will restart the polysilicon project was discontinued four years.

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3. the November results: recovery in market conditions the response gap

Solar industry through frozen state in the third quarter, and in October, November there has been a gradual recovery. But Taiwan industries ‘ earnings performance has not been consistent growth related primarily to the manufacturers adjust

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International articles

1. There is no “clean electric power plan” for United States energy transformation and how large the emission reduction is affected?

February 2016, the United States Supreme Court has suspended the Obama administration “clean electric power plan” implementation of the United States the newly elected President, Trump has also threatened to withdraw the plan. So, if the clean electricity plan was voted down, the United States energy transformation as well as emissions cuts will have much impact?

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2. India PV market

India is an emerging economy, India business must experience “India characteristic” test, while China’s export India larger photovoltaic cells, modules, encountered greater possibilities of trade protection.

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3. the Netherlands energy transition accelerated PV market shows strong growth

Netherlands Government had recently been proposed in 2017, increasing the budget for renewable energy projects by 33%. It is reported that this is achieve its 2020 emissions reduction target, the Government delayed the remedy to the case tried. The country’s renewable energy support schemes SDE+ budget for next year is expected to reach nearly 6 billion euros, covering areas such as wind power, photovoltaic.

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Review of 4.2016 in South-East Asia in the first half of the new energy market

2016 new energy power projects in Southeast Asia is no longer a strong momentum of development. So far, this does not introduce a new FIT subsidies, the market mechanism is gradually formed. Development of solar projects in a short time will be slow, but with some new projects to bring economic growth, market mechanisms play a role started, electricity markets in the long term there is a positive trend.

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5. Japan above 500kW solar panels in the third quarter shipment growth 10%

Japan PV power Association (JPEA) November 24 announced has 2016 7 ~ September Japan solar Board domestic shipping volume statistics value: residential with battery Board of shipping volume for 308MW (for last year earlier of 84%), 500kW following power station of shipping volume for 404MW (for last year earlier of 74%), are for continued reduced trend, but to 500kW above power station of shipping volume reached 953MW, for last year earlier of 110%.

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National Energy Board releases solar Thirteen Five plan

Polaris solar PV net news: to promote sustainable and healthy development of solar energy industry, speed up the diversified use of solar energy, promoting the building of a clean and low carbon, secure and efficient modern energy system, the National Energy Board issued a circular solar development “Thirteen-Five” plan. By the end of 2020, solar power installed capacity reached 110 million kW, of which, photovoltaic power installed capacity reached more than 105 million kW, in “Twelve-Five” annually to maintain stable development based on scale solar thermal power installed capacity up to 5 million-kilowatt. Solar thermal collector area reached 800 million square meters. By 2020, solar year reaching more than 140 million tons of standard coal.

Objective

In recent years, the rapid expansion of solar energy utilization scale, technological progress and industrial upgrading to speed up, significantly reduce the cost, has become an important field of global energy transition. The “Twelve-Five” period, our solar system and constantly improve technological progress significantly, photovoltaic manufacture and application of the scale are the highest in the world. Solar thermal power technology research and equipment manufacturing have made great progress, commercialization test project completed, preliminary conditions the scale of development. Solar thermal continuing stable development and to building heating, industrial heating and agriculture production applications.

“Thirteen-Five” will be a critical period for the development of the solar industry, basic task of industrial upgrading, reduce costs, expand the application, implementation does not rely on State-subsidized marketing self-sustainable development, achieving the 2020 and 2030, non-fossil energy accounted for the proportion of primary energy consumption 15% and 20% targets an important force.

According to the national economic and social development the 13th five-year plan, the energy development “Thirteen-Five” programme, the electric power development “Thirteen-Five” programme, the renewable energy development “Thirteen-Five” programme, developed a solar development “Thirteen-Five” programme, elaborated from 2016 to 2020 solar development guidelines, development objectives, priorities and measures. The plan is “Thirteen-Five” the fundamental basis for the development of solar energy industry in China.

Basis, development and situation

(A) development

1, international development

With the concept of sustainable development in countries of the world people, rapid expansion of solar energy utilization in the world scale, advances in technology, cost is reduced, showing good prospects for development, solar energy as an important industry in many countries.

–Solar power more widely. PV entered the development stage, China, Europe, the United States, and Japan, such as traditional photovoltaic market continued to maintain rapid growth, Southeast Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and African regions such as photovoltaic power generation in emerging markets is also quick start. Development of the solar thermal power industry began to pick up speed, a large number of commercial solar thermal power projects have been built or are under construction, solar thermal power generation has an adjustable power supply potential. Solar thermal continues to expand applications, domestic hot water, heating and cooling and in industrial and agricultural production gradually spread.

–Solar power growth. By the end of 2015, the global solar power generation capacity has exceeded 230 million kilowatts, when installed over 53 million-kilowatt, 20% of the world’s new generation capacity. PV 2006-2015, the average annual growth rate of more than 40%, as the world’s fastest-growing energy; solar thermal power installed 4 million-kilowatt within 5 years, into the early stages of industrialization.

–Rapid improvement in the competitiveness of solar energy. With technological advances and expansion of PV industry, photovoltaic power generation costs and rapid growth in Europe, Japan, and Australia and other countries and areas of commercial and residential areas have achieved parity. After entering the early stages of industrialization on solar thermal power generation cost is reduced. Further improvement of the competitiveness of solar thermal market, solar water heaters are less expensive hot water supply, solar heating in Europe, the Americas and other regions with the economic feasibility.

–The solar industry driving the economy significantly. 2015 global PV market reached more than 500 billion yuan, about 3 million jobs, outstanding performance in promoting a new global economic development. Many countries focus on PV industry cultivation of strategic emerging industries and new sources of economic growth, have put in relevant industry development plan in PV technology development and industrialization of the increasing support, the global photovoltaic industry maintained strong growth momentum.

2, the domestic development present situation

The “Twelve-Five” period, the State Council issued the opinions on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry (national development (2013), 24th), photovoltaic industrial policy system gradually improved, made significant advances in PV technology, rapid expansion of markets. Solar thermal power technology and equipment to achieve a breakthrough, the first commercial operation of power station is put into operation, established the industrial chain. Solar thermal continuing stable development and expansion to the heating, refrigeration and heating industry and Agriculture and other fields.

–Rapid expansion of PV scale, gradually diversified market applications. National PV cumulative installed capacity 43.18 million-kilowatt 860,000-kilowatt growth from 2010 to 2015 in 2015, new installed capacity 15.13 million-kilowatt, cumulative installed capacity and annual installed capacity ranks top in the world. Photovoltaic applications form the Eastern, Central and Western development, both centralized and distributed patterns. Photovoltaic power generation and agriculture, aquaculture, ecological industry development mode innovation, has entered a new stage of diversification, scale development.

–PV manufacturing industry has improved continuously, continue to consolidate and strengthen the international competitiveness. The “Twelve-Five” period, China’s PV manufacturing compound annual growth rate of more than 33%, the output value reached 300 billion yuan, nearly 1.7 million to create jobs, new momentum for the development of the photovoltaic industry shows strong. 2015 polysilicon production of 165,000 tons, with a global market share of 48%; 46 million-kilowatt PV module production, with a global market share of 70%. PV products in the international market continues to expand, in the traditional European and American markets and emerging markets were dominant. Most of the key equipment of PV manufacturing in China have achieved localization and progressive introduction of intelligent manufacturing, in the leading level in the world.

–Rapid progress in photovoltaic technology, costs and falling prices. Chinese enterprises have mastered ton modified Siemens process polysilicon production technology, fluidized-bed method began industrial production of polysilicon. Advanced polysilicon production average comprehensive electricity consumption has fallen to 80kWh/kg, the production cost down to $10/kg, closed-loop process and full realization of Silicon tetrachloride pollution emissions. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon cell conversion efficiency of 19.5% and 18.3%, respectively, are the world leading level, and an average annual rate of 0.4% continued to improve, polycrystalline silicon material, the cost of photovoltaic cells and modules has dropped significantly, PV system cost down to 7/watts, photovoltaic power generation costs “Twelve-Five” duration overall fell by more than 60%.

PV industrial policy–basic system, optimization of the development environment. On the basis of the renewable energy sources Act, in 2013, the State Council issued the opinions on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry, further from the prices, subsidies, taxes, multiple levels of grid-connected PV policy framework clearly, local governments have formulated policies and measures to support PV applications. Photovoltaic industry in the field of related materials, solar modules, photovoltaic power generation system and other standards continue to improve, industrial testing and certification system is gradually established, with the whole industry chain detection capabilities. Personnel training system has taken shape in the photovoltaic industry in China, and PV technical and management capacity in the areas of improved significantly.

–Solar thermal power plant to achieve breakthrough, preliminary industrial development Foundation. The “Twelve-Five” period, China’s larger breakthrough solar thermal power technology and equipment. Badaling 1 megawatt solar thermal power technology and system demonstration project was completed in 2012, 10,000-kilowatt Tower solar thermal generators in commercial operation of the first group to put into operation in 2013. Theoretical research on solar thermal power generation in China, technology development, equipment development and construction operation has accumulated some experience, the industrial chain formed, has the ability of industrialization.

–Solar thermal continues to expand the scale and expanding range of applications. Solar thermal industry formed a material, product, process, equipment, and making the whole industry chain, by the end of 2015, the national number of solar collector area reached 440 million square meters, annual production capacity and application of the scale are more than 70% of the world, for many years the global solar thermal product manufacturing and application status of the largest States. Solar heating, refrigeration and technology breakthroughs in areas such as industry and agriculture, and hot water to the diversification of production and areas of application range from life extension.

(B) the situation

“Thirteen-Five” is promoting economic restructuring, energy revolution, an important period of system and mechanism innovation, key stages in the upgrade is the solar industry, China’s solar industry rare development opportunities, also faces serious challenges.

1, development opportunities

–Macroeconomic policy environment provides opportunities for the solar industry. Since the party’s 18, national strategy for construction of ecological civilization in a prominent position, promoting energy production and consumption revolution became the core mission of energy development, established in China in around 2030 carbon dioxide emissions peak and the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption increased to 20% basic goals of energy development. With the rapid development of new towns, building green loop of low carbon energy system is an inevitable requirement of social development, for the development of solar and other renewable energy provides a good social environment and a broad market space.

–Electric power system for solar energy development has added new impetus. New round of electric power system reform is being gradually liberalized electricity utility plan, priority power generation system, promoting marketing electricity side opening and price formation mechanism reform, building a modern competitive electric power market to the renewable energy development and equity participation in market transactions. Under the new conditions of electric power system, the market mechanism will be encouraged to improve power system flexibility, and gradually resolve conflict of interest problems of conventional and renewable sources of energy, expansion of new energy absorptive market, so as to promote the large-scale development of renewable energy such as solar power. With the reform of electricity sales, distributed generation will be more flexible and diversified way, distributed PV innovation through market mechanisms to solve the problems faced by developing and promoting the development of solar power market freedom.

–Global energy transition to solar power will provide a broad market space. At present, the global energy system is accelerating the transition to a low carbon and renewable energy scale use and cleaner conventional energy basic trend of the development of low carbon energy, accelerating the development of renewable energy has become a mainstream global energy transition. Global PV industry has entered a new phase of large-scale development, solar thermal applications are diversified structure. Solar energy availability and energy structure adjustment has a unique advantage, is more widely used on a global scale.

2, faces challenges

–High cost is still the major obstacles for the development of PV power generation. Although PV power price has sharply declined, but and coal-fired power price compared still partial high, in “Thirteen-Five” period on national subsidies rely on degree still high, PV power of non-technology cost has increased trend, ground PV power station of land rent, and tax, cost constantly rose, roof distributed PV of site rent also has rose pressure, financing cost drop limited even private enterprise financing cost not drop anti-rose problem highlight. Photovoltaic technology, reduce costs and non-technical costs must also force, in order to accelerate PV power cost and price decreases.

–Grid and eliminate still more restricted. Market mechanisms are not adapted solar power systems and power generation development, traditional energy and photovoltaic power generation fighting for power market in contradiction. Solar energy resources and land resources with the advantages of the Western region to abandon power serious local absorptive and delivery of market mechanisms and network operation and management constraints. Distributed solar power cannot yet take full advantage of in the eastern region, the current market mechanism cannot reflect the economic value of distributed power generation using the nearest limit large-scale development of distributed PV in urban middle and low voltage distribution network.

–PV industry faced pressures of international trade protection. With the rapid expansion of global PV market size, many national PV industry as a new economic growth point. States on the one hand in upstream production of raw materials, equipment manufacturing, new battery research and development efforts to increase technology research and development, international competition is more intense on the other, many countries and regions in the context of market competition to take protectionist measures of China’s photovoltaic products with competitive advantages in the global application constitute, and weakening of global cooperation in efforts to mitigate climate change.

–Solar thermal power industry capacity is weak. Solar thermal power generation in China has not been applied, in the design, construction, operation and maintenance link to lack of experience, in terms of core components and devices independent technological capability is not strong, industry chain need to be further improved. Meanwhile, solar thermal power generation cost compared to other renewable energy high, facing accelerated upgrading and greater pressure to reduce costs.

–Solar thermal industry is updating very slowly. In the “Twelve-Five” later, solar thermal market growth slows, traditional solar hot water application development bottleneck, the lack of new potential markets. Solar thermal industry solar heating, industrial heating low overall diversified applications, product development, system design and integration of technical ability, but also in new fields of application-related standards, testing, certification and other services need to be improved.

Second, guidelines and objectives

(A) of the guidelines

Implement party of 18 big and three in the, and four in the, and v, and six in the plenary spirit, to advance energy production and consumption revolution for total approach, conform to global energy transformation trend, to system mechanism reform innovation for opportunity, full implementation innovation drive strategy, accelerated technology progress and industry upgrade, continued reduced utilization cost, advance market conditions Xia of industrialization, and scale development, makes solar became promoted energy revolution of important power.

–Diversify and accelerate technological progress promoting photovoltaic power generation. Focusing on optimizing construction layouts, industrial progress and the advancement of economic and other development goals, local conditions promote the diversification of photovoltaic applications. Electric power system reform, promoting distributed PV in the East; integrated land and power market, and manpower development and the market to dissolve, orderly standard centralized PV power station construction. Through the competitive allocation of items to achieve optimal allocation of resources, the implementation of “leader” scheme, accelerating PV technological progress and industrial upgrading, and accelerating the Elimination of backward production capacity. Relying on the market to promote the manufacturing industry continued to improve skill levels, promoting the innovative development of industry-wide coordination, and constantly improve the management and service system of PV industry.

–Through demonstration projects to promote solar thermal power industry. Actively promote the construction of demonstration projects, sum up experience in construction and operation, establish policy and management system, improve the technical standards, promote the large-scale development of solar thermal power industry. Promoting the industrialization of various solar thermal power technology, established standards and certification testing services, promote the solar thermal power industry in our country to enter the international market and improve competitiveness.

–Continuing to expand solar thermal applications and markets. Build solar water heating market, promotion of heating and hot water, such as large-scale application in the field of industry and agriculture, expanding emerging markets such as refrigeration, seasonal thermal storage, diversified market. Greatly enhance research and development, manufacturing and system integration of innovation, enhance detection and experimental public service systems in industries such as the construction of the platform to form manufacturing, system integration, operations services balanced development of solar thermal utilization industry, forming technology leadership, the international industrial competitive advantage.

(B) basic principles

–Insist on coordinated large-scale use and industrial upgrading

To the large-scale use of solar energy to promote technological progress and industrial upgrading, and encourage enterprises to enhance independent research and development capacity, to technology as the core, promote key technological innovation, and comprehensively improve the industrial technology development and manufacturing capabilities, improve and upgrade solar power and solar thermal industry chain, accelerate the use of solar energy cost reductions, through the improvement of their competitiveness expand applications and scale.

–Adhere to market-oriented development and coordinated reform and innovation

Released through market-oriented reforms and enhance the new dynamics of innovation and development of solar energy industry, innovation to promote the use of solar energy electricity trading mechanisms to encourage solar power distributed, diversified, innovative development. Deepening the reform of institutional mechanisms to accelerate the implementation of innovation-driven development strategy, green development and innovation development organic integration, promote market-oriented financing mode reform and innovation to achieve coordinated development of industry and finance.

–Insist on coordinated development and market demand

Market-oriented, according to economic principles of optimal layout of solar power, solar power load and power distribution distribution and development mechanism for coordinated network planning. Priority support distributed development of photovoltaic power generation, focused on supporting distributed PV distributed access over low voltage distribution networks and close to dissolve. Promoting large-scale grid-connected solar power source network load coordination development, priorities, and expand the scope of absorptive.

–Insist on coordination upstream manufacturing and downstream applications

Upstream manufacture of solar energy industry in order to strengthen technological innovation, improve product quality, reduce costs, as the core task, creating the conditions for large-scale development and raw materials markets. Downstream market is the core task of innovation development, realization of scale models to promote quality and benefit mode changes to demand high standards for the imposition of upgrading the new dynamics in the upper reaches to achieve stereoscopic collaborative innovation development of upstream manufacturing and downstream markets.

(C) development goals

Continue to expand the scale of utilization of solar energy, and constantly increase the proportion of solar energy in the energy mix, promote solar technology, reduce the cost of solar energy. Improve solar energy utilization system of technical innovation and diversity, and provide a good market environment for the healthy development of the industry.

1, the development goals

By the end of 2020, solar power installed capacity reached 110 million kW, of which, photovoltaic power installed capacity reached more than 105 million kW, in “Twelve-Five” annually to maintain stable development based on scale solar thermal power installed capacity up to 5 million-kilowatt. Solar thermal collector area reached 800 million square meters. By 2020, solar year reaching more than 140 million tons of standard coal.


National Energy Board releases solar

National Energy Board releases solar

2, cost goals

Photovoltaic power generation costs continue to drop. By 2020, the PV electricity price level declining in 2015 on the basis of 50%, in the running to achieve parity goals; solar thermal power generation cost is lower than 0.8 Yuan/kWh, solar heating, industrial heating market.

3, technical progress goals

Advanced industrialization of crystal silicon PV cell conversion efficiency of more than 23%, thin film PV cell conversion efficiency of industrialization, industrialization of some preliminary new photovoltaic cell. Efficiency of photovoltaic systems significantly improve and realize intelligent maintenance. Improved efficiency of thermal power generation by solar energy, form the entire value chain integration capabilities.

Third, key tasks

In accordance with the “innovation, industrial upgrading, reduce costs, expand markets, improve the system of” general idea promotes photovoltaic diversified, actively promote the development of industrialization of solar thermal power, speed up the popularization of diversified solar thermal utilization.

(A) promotion of distributed PV and “PV +” application

1, pushing on the roof of distributed PV

Continuation of distributed PV Application demonstration area by 2020, build 100 demonstration zone of distributed PV applications, 80% of new buildings in the industrial park roof, 50% has been building roof-mounted photovoltaic power generation. The development conditions of the industrial park, economic development zone, large industrial and mining enterprises as well as shopping malls, schools, hospitals and other public buildings, to take “voluntary government guidance, Enterprise, financial support and social participation”, and implement unified planning rooftop PV projects. Solar energy resources high grid access to dissolve better in rural areas and small towns, promote the residents of rooftop PV project, combined with the construction of new town, old town renovation, relocation of new countryside construction, easy unified planning and construction, such as rooftop PV projects, resulted in a number of PV, PV, small town village.

2, expand “PV +” utilization projects

Encourage combination of barren hills and wasteland and shoaly land utilization, waste in coal mining areas of land management, agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture and other ways, according to local conditions of all types of “PV +” application engineering, promoting the integration of photovoltaic power generation and other industries, through the PV open up new ways for land use. Exploration various upgrade agricultural benefits of PV agricultural fusion development mode, encourages combined modern efficient agricultural facilities construction PV power station; in aquatic farming conditions good of area, encourages using pit Tang water construction fishing light one PV power station; in meet forestry management specification of premise Xia, in should be woodland, and shrubs forest, and sparse woodland reasonable layout Lin Guang complementary PV power station; combined Chinese herbal medicines planting, and vegetation protection, and ecological governance engineering, reasonable distribution built PV power station.

3, innovating the mode of distributed PV applications

Power system development of distributed PV market transaction, encouraged construction of PV power projects close to the load, access low-voltage electricity distribution network in the nearest to dissolve. Power enterprises should provide service for distributed PV grid connected operation, giving priority to eliminate distributed photovoltaic power generation, construction of parallel operation of distributed generation technology support system and organize distributed electricity trading. Implementation of distributed solar power projects market sale of electricity to the power user mode, power transmission and distribution price paid by enterprises in accordance with the promotion of the principles of distributed PV to dissolve reasonably determine.

(B) optimization of PV power plant layout and innovative construction methods

1, reasonable layout of PV power station

Considering solar energy resources, grid access, absorptive market and land use conditions and costs, to the photovoltaic industry development of goal-oriented, arranging provincial (district, municipal) PV annual construction, rational distribution of concentrated photovoltaic power plant. Regulate the order of distribution of PV projects and market development, the full adoption of competition mechanism to achieve optimal allocation of project, accelerating PV technology. Abandoned power places, strictly control the centralized PV power station construction, speeding up the abandoned power that have emerged, taking local absorptive and expanded delivery methods, improve the utilization of centralized PV power plant built and reduce abandon optical power ratio.

2, build solar power delivery channel base

According to “more can complementary, and coordination development, and expanded elimination na, and improve benefits” of layout thought, in “three North” area using existing and planning construction of special high pressure power outside sent channel, according to priority stock, and optimization incremental of principles, ordered construction solar power base, improve power outside sent channel in the can renewable energy share, effective expanded “three North” area solar power elimination na range. In Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and other good solar resource, land resource-rich areas, study and phased construction of solar power and other renewable power base of complementary. In the jinsha, Yalong River, Lancang River hydropower resource-abundant regions in Southwest, relying on hydropower base and power delivery, on the phased construction of large water scenery and hybrid power base.


National Energy Board releases solar

3, the implementation of PV “leaders” program

Established reached advanced level of “leader” standard of efficiency of photovoltaic products and systems, building “leader” leads the technology base for photovoltaic products, provides marketing support for advanced technologies and products, leading photovoltaic technology advancement and industrial upgrading. With sinkholes in coal mining areas, desertification, in the given conditions and eliminate market area, planned and orderly construction of photovoltaic power generation led technology base, optimization of investment and development of competition, in accordance with the “leader” technical standards organizations. Organizations achieve the technological State of the art leading edge technology rely on plants, accelerating the industrialization of new technology development. Establish and perfect “frontrunner” product testing, certification, inspection and security system to ensure that “leader” base use of photovoltaic products reach the advanced indexes.

(C) various PV poverty alleviation

PV 1, innovation oriented poverty reduction model

Mainly deals with the incapacity of the filing State to target poor, according to local conditions, by stages and in groups promoting photovoltaic projects for poverty alleviation in various forms, covering file set up card 2.8 million incapacity households, average cash revenue increase of 3000 Yuan a year per household. Make sure PV key equipment to achieve advanced technical indicators for poverty alleviation and reliable quality, encourage the establishment of specialized platform of photovoltaic project for poverty alleviation of the company consolidated operations and monitoring, protection PV poverty reduction project long lasting reliable quality, stable performance and effectiveness.

2, promoting distributed PV to poverty alleviation

Lack of land resources in the Central and eastern areas, give priority to the use of village-level power stations (including solar home systems) photovoltaic models for poverty alleviation, a single household system around 5-kilowatt, generally not more than a single village power station 300-kilowatt. Village-level poverty alleviation priorities included construction of photovoltaic power generation in power plant size, additional priority national renewable electricity price subsidies. Distributed PV for rural power grid upgrading and poverty reduction project cohesion, ensure that all the electricity generated by photovoltaic project access, dissolve. Establishment of village-level poverty alleviation and later operation supervision and management system for power plant construction, monitoring information into national PV poverty reduction information management system, encourage construction of uniform running monitoring and management platform to ensure long-term reliable operation in power plant and the poor get a steady income.

3, encouraging the construction of photovoltaic agricultural engineering

Encourage regions of modern agriculture, development of characteristic agricultural industrial PV for poverty alleviation. Encourages local government by PPP mode, by Government voted financing subject and commercial investment enterprise joint venture construction PV agricultural project, project assets return Government voted financing subject and commercial investment enterprise total, returns by unit than into, Government voted financing subject to will by accounted for shares Folding Unit quantitative to meet conditions of poverty village, and poor, representative poverty object participation project investment business, by months (or quarter) to poverty village, and poor distribution assets returns. Solar agricultural engineering to priority filing state card poor labour, and play a leading role in developing agriculture with local characteristics.

(D) promoting solar thermal power industry

1 organize demonstration projects on solar thermal power construction

In accordance with the “overallplanning, step by step, technology, industry collaboration” idea, step by step process of solar thermal power industry. In “Thirteen-Five” Qian half period, active promoted 1.5 million-kilowatt around of solar hot power model project construction, summary accumulated construction run experience, perfect management approach and policy environment, validation localization equipment and the material of reliability; foster and enhanced system integrated capacity, master key core technology, formed equipment manufacturing industry chain, promote industry scale development and products quality improve, led production cost reduced, preliminary has international market competitiveness.

2, solar thermal power generation peaking role to play

Gradual industrialization of solar thermal power generation commercialization, its thermal energy storage, adjustable output controlled and other advantages, achieving Web source friendly development, improving the acceptance of network capacity of renewable energy. In Qinghai, and Xinjiang, and Gansu, can renewable energy rich set area, ahead of do solar hot power layout, exploration to solar hot power bear system adjustable peak way, research established solar hot power and PV power, and wind electric, and pumping storage, complementary using, and power can control can adjustable of large mixed type can renewable energy power base, to grid provides clean, and security, and stable of power, promote can renewable energy high proportion application.

3, establish a sound service system of solar thermal power industry

Learning from foreign experience in solar thermal power engineering construction, combined with the implementation of demonstration projects on solar thermal power in China, developing solar thermal power system design, equipment, construction, and operation standards, establish and perfect design, testing and certification and quality management supporting system. Speeding up the construction of solar thermal power industry policy management system, developing solar thermal power generation project management approach to ensure healthy and orderly development of the solar thermal power industry.

(E) according to local conditions to promote solar water heating

1, further promote solar water heating applications

Powered by market demand, to rely on projects such as construction of small towns, shantytowns, further promote the large-scale solar water heating applications. In suitable areas increase the intensity of solar water heating systems solar energy resources. Support for rural and small town residents to install solar water heaters, introduced in rural solar energy projects, public bathrooms, and expand the scale of application of solar water heaters in the rural area. In cities, public buildings, affordable housing, affordable housing projects to increase efforts to force promotion of solar hot water systems. In new construction, renovation or expansion of the city’s residential architectural promoted solar water heating systems and building planning, design, and application.

2, and solar heating and cooling technologies

In Northeast, and North, concentrated heating area, active advance solar and general energy fusion, take concentrated type and distributed combined of way for building heating; in concentrated heating not cover area, combined local can renewable energy resources, vigorously promoted solar, and geothermal energy, and biological quality boiler, small can renewable energy heating; in need hot and cold double for of East, and Central and traditional concentrated heating not cover of long triangle, and beads triangle, area, focus used solar, and geothermal energy heating refrigeration technology. Encouraging conditions suitable for the small and medium towns, residential and public buildings to promote solar-powered district heating system, solar hot water, heating and cooling of the refrigeration system. By 2020, the number in the appropriate area-building large district heating stations reach more than 200 seats, total collector area of more than 4 million square meters. Construction of new countryside, in the country to promote rural demonstration project of building solar hot water, heating more than 3 million households.

3, promote industrial and agricultural fields of solar heating

Combined industrial energy conservation and emission reduction, in the new industrial zone (economic development zone) building and in the transformation of traditional industrial regions, actively promoting solar heating and energy integration, the promotion of industrial energy structure of clean. In printing and dyeing, ceramics, food processing, agriculture, greenhouses, farms, such as heat demand and industry matching the solar thermal system, fully utilizing solar heating system as conventional energy source, providing heat for industrial production, industrial heating for cascade recycling. Combined with the new energy model city and new energy industrial park, green energy demonstration counties (districts), construction of a number of agricultural and industrial production of solar heating, heat collection area of 20 million square metres.

(F) demonstration of new energy micro-grid applications

Construction of 1, network of micro-grid demonstration project

In distributed renewable energy penetration rate higher or have multiple complementary conditions of building a new network energy micro-grid demonstration projects. By natural gas distributed energy storage technology, power generation, intelligent control and integrated applications of information technology, power production and consumption of the new business model and new business, promote the innovation and development of electric power market of more dynamic, forming a perfect system and new energy micro-grid system, and gradually raise the renewable energy penetration, exploring the construction of 100% renewable energy can complement micro energy network.

2 carry out off-grid micro grid demonstration

Upgrade energy electronic technology tie micro-grid energy management and the storage can technology, height fusion sent lost for electricity link, in grid not cover or power capacity insufficient of remote area, and island, and border posts,, full using rich of can regeneration resources, achieved variety energy integrated complementary using, construction intelligent away from network type new energy micro-grid model engineering, alternative diesel generator group and reduced power cost, protection ecological environment, improved area energy structure.

3, exploring the micro-grid electricity exchange model

Power system requirements, develop new energy micro-grid applications. With new energy micro-grid for the carrier as the main body independent from electricity sales, exploring distributed within the micro-grid PV direct supply and micro-grid of new energy power generation project electricity deal directly with local mode. Supporting micro-grid renewable electricity direct buying, explore new 100% energy micro-grid electricity consumption.

(G) accelerate technological innovation and industrial upgrading

1, the establishment of national PV technology innovation platform

Relying on agencies such as the national key laboratories and national engineering centers, promoting the establishment of photovoltaic power generation of public technology innovation, product tests, empirical research on three national PV technology innovation platform, forming the world’s leading, industry-wide integrated innovation support platform. Public technology innovation platform focusing on new types of solar cells, new photovoltaic systems and components, grid-connected PV high permeability and other prospects in the field of research and technology. Product testing platform focusing on photovoltaic industrial chain link construction products and systems test platform. Empirical research platform focusing on different regions and climates, grid photovoltaic systems and components in the condition of empirical research, establishment of national PV public Center for monitoring and evaluation.

2, the implementation of solar energy industry upgrading program

To promote the industrialization of China’s solar energy technology and equipment upgrades as the goal, advancing the whole industry chain of raw material, product manufacturing technology, production technology and production equipment inside the level. PV support PERC technology, n-type single crystal high efficiency crystalline silicon cells, the new thin film solar cell industrialization as well as the development of key equipment; solar thermal power generation breakthrough in efficient bulk high-temperature thermal storage, energy efficiency solar collectors and other key technologies, research and development of high reliability, full-day power generation solar thermal power system integration technology and key equipment.

3 carry out innovation in cutting-edge technologies application and demonstration project

Combined with the demand for downstream applications, solar energy application technology demonstration project in the field of national organizations. Focus for various efficient low cost PV battery, and new PV battery, and new PV system and the control/inverse variable device, key parts in different geographical, and climate, and grid conditions Xia for model application, and in the high temperature solar concentrated heating in building, and heating, field of model application, meet new energy micro-grid, and modern agricultural, and PV fisheries, emerging market solar technology of needs, established research organic combined, and technology and application mutual promote, and Shang downstream collaborative advance of technology innovation mechanism.

(H) enhance the level of service industry management and industry

1, strengthen management and quality supervision

Establish government rule-making PV power plant project resource allocation, market competition and prohibit resource for industry and local conservation and other acts of unfair competition, put an end to speculation such as reselling items, set up, full and effective competition in the market mechanism. Strengthening quality supervision and management of solar energy projects, improve the technical qualification of project construction and operation management, establishment of markets, clearly, measures are in place, monitoring powerful solar project construction quality supervision system, and play the role of quality supervision on Government. Scientific, just, standard solar project engineering and related equipment, such as quality, safety evaluation, establish transparent quality supervision management of public order, improving the reliability and safety of products, and ensure the quality of construction.

2, improve monitoring of industry information and service levels

Expand the scope of solar industry information monitoring and management, application data, Internet “+” and other modern information technology, perfect, plan implementation, annual solar resource size, early development, construction and operation of life-cycle information monitoring system, dynamic development of the industry to the public in a timely manner. By means of information, industry data queries and applications for grant funds to facilitate, regulate electricity prices additional assistance fund management, improve the efficiency of renewable energy price subsidies granted in the annex, and enhance the level of public services.

3, trade capacity-building

Encouraging domestic research institutes, agencies, industry organizations play in personnel training, technical advice and the role of international exchanges, establish communication among businesses, consumers, government departments and contacts with international renowned research institutions on the international front, common technology joint research and development, product manufacturing, technology transfer, intellectual property rights and other areas of cooperation. Increase human and institutional capacity-building support, and train a number of solar industry urgently needed technical and management personnel, encouraging universities and enterprises in training senior personnel, support enterprises to establish solar teaching practice base and mobile stations for postdoctoral, encourages universities, research institutions and enterprises to attract talents from overseas.

(I) deepening solar international industrial cooperation

1, expand solar energy international cooperation on market and production capacity

“Along the way”, the Economic Corridor, the Bangladesh-India-Myanmar economic corridor planning of key areas such as strengthening the international solar industry market research, lead major international project development and construction, consolidation of Europe, North America and parts of Asia, such as the traditional solar industry investment market, focuses on the development of Southeast Asia, West Asia, Latin America, Africa and other emerging markets. Project to strengthen advanced capacity and develop international cooperation, building strategic alliances in the entire value chain, continued to improve industry competitiveness in the international market, achieving solar capacity “eugenic”.

2, advanced solar technology research and equipment manufacturing collaboration

Encourage enterprises to strengthen international cooperation in research and development, solar energy industry, generic technology research and development, improve China’s industrial technology research and development capabilities and core competencies, promote industry technology progress. Solar technology to promote internationalization platform for cooperation and Exchange, cooperation with the relevant Governments and enterprises of building innovative demonstration projects. Our solar system installation “go abroad” development, encourage enterprises to overseas technology research and development institutions, technology and cross-flow and optimized integration of intelligence resources.

3, strengthening mutual recognition of product standards and testing of solar energy international

Gradually perfect the standard system of solar energy, and actively participate in international standard-setting the solar industry, increase the standard of independent intellectual property rights system to promote, promote mutual recognition of testing and certification of the international. Rely on the development and construction of key projects, follow IEC standardization work in solar energy, strengthening international standards study on differentiation and transformation of international standards. Participate in multilateral mechanisms, such as the IECRE system of the international mutual recognition of product standards testing and certification organizations, mastering standards testing and certification rules, improve our voice in the international certification, testing and other areas.

Four, safeguard measures

(A) improve the planning guide and project configuration management

Strengthening planning and annual construction Guide for national solar energy development, local governments at all levels should integrate solar into energy development and energy conservation and emission reduction plan. Provincial and local energy authorities determined in accordance with national objectives and tasks, scientific development of regional planning and prepare the annual implementation plan for solar energy development, agriculture, forestry, land, construction and other related intergovernmental coordination and convergence in the field of work. Configures PV full competition, to form a market-oriented pricing mechanism, and gradually reduce the demand for solar-power subsidies, increasing solar power competitive in the marketplace.

(B) establish the solar industry monitoring and evaluation system

For solar development of external and internal factors, determines the construction scale and layout plan of the year in all regions, and roll adjustment mechanisms, achieve discharge pipe, optimization services. In terms of resources, building conditions, actual operation and absorptive market and policy environments as well as planning the key tasks to complete solar monitoring and evaluation system, scientific and reasonable evaluation method evaluation of solar energy development environment, as an important basis for distribution of solar energy industry.

(C) improving the solar power market mechanism and matching power grid construction

According to the electric power system series documentation requirements, establishing solar power electricity market mechanisms, ensuring priority Internet access and fully guaranteeing the purchasing of solar power. Direct trade promotion of distributed PV and electricity users, power companies as a public platform to charge Internet fees. Distributed PV development within the urban network rural network reconstruction planning, combined with the characteristics of distributed PV to build smart grid upgrades. Centralized large power plants and supporting network synchronization planning, implementation and absorptive market out of the programme. Power grid enterprises and guaranteeing the purchasing power control Office should be renewable in full regulations, protect the PV power plant within a guaranteed minimum number of hours of electricity by country approved or competition to determine price acquisitions; more than a minimum number of hours of electricity, through participation in the electricity market competition full advantage.

(D) strengthen the solar industry standard system construction

Follow the direction of technical innovation and industrial upgrading, build solar industry standard systems and testing and certification system. Enhancing industry-wide solar technology and the testing equipment research and development, integration testing resources, public testing platform of the solar industry’s key products. Perfect for different environmental characteristics of photovoltaic system design and installation, grid access, operation and maintenance of standards and to develop agricultural photovoltaic, PV fishery, construction and PV photovoltaic innovation and application standards, promoting the integration of photovoltaic and other industries a win-win development. Gradual development of solar thermal electricity products certification, standard solar thermal power plant engineering, procurement, construction, installation and acceptance.

(V) innovation and financial investment and financing services

Encourage financial regulators and financial institutions promoting the development of renewable energy and other clean energy green credit policy, exploration rights to proceeds from electricity sales and project assets as security for a loan mechanism. Improving distributed PV new financial support mechanism, actively promoting the banks and other financial institutions establishing PV power generation projects in cooperation with local government financing platforms. Through State-funded, business investment and the participation of social capital, explore the possibilities for national PV industry investment fund, for the PV industry of public technology platform, key fundamental research, core equipment and “along the way” out of the financial support to innovative business and reduce the cost of financing. Solar industry and the regular exchange mechanism between financial institutions, promote the coordinated development of industry and finance.

Five, economic, social and environmental benefits

(A) environmental benefits

In 2020, the solar year reaching more than 140 million tons of standard coal, accounted for more than 18% of non-fossil energy consumption, the “Thirteen-Five” new solar year use scale for the period equivalent to more than 75 million tons of standard coal, about new non-fossil energy consumption of more than 30%.

In 2020, the national solar years equivalent of about 370 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions, reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 1.2 million tons, 900,000 tons to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, reduce soot emissions by about 1.1 million tons, the environmental benefits.

(B) economic efficiency

Through the large-scale development of solar energy industry, a strong impetus to local economic development. Expect “Thirteen-Five” period, the solar industry’s contribution to China’s economic output will exceed one trillion yuan. Among them, the solar power industry’s contribution to China’s economic output will reach 600 billion yuan, with an average annual economy demands more than 120 billion yuan, synchronous drive industries such as electronics, new materials, advanced manufacturing, Internet, solar thermal industry contribution to economic output will reach 500 billion yuan.

(C) social benefits

On the utilization of solar energy and raw materials industry is growing, the ability to drive the development of related industries increased significantly, increasing employment, poverty alleviation effect. By 2020, solar power will provide about 7 million jobs.

Original title: National Energy Board releases solar “Thirteen-Five plan”

Brazil announced the cancellation in 2016 the only solar bids

Polaris solar PV net news: on Wednesday, Brazil Government announced the end of solar energy, originally scheduled on December 19 auction, this is the only solar energy auction in the country this year.

Brazil is currently very severe economic crisis, which affected the power demands. According to Central Bank estimates, Brazil’s gross domestic product shrank in the past 12 months over 5%.

Information shows that this bid a total of 419 photovoltaic projects, with a total capacity of 13 gigawatts, registered to enter the bidding. Auction has a wind power generation, which has registered about 22 gigawatt project. According to the regulations, in the bid to win the project finish date is scheduled for July 2019.

This is Brazil Government solar bid was canceled for the second time this year. Last March, two reserve auction facility solar energy category, and planned to be held in July and October. In June, the first auction was canceled, then in July, the second auction postponed until December.

Annual bidding by solar energy is considered to be the key to promoting the development of solar energy industry in China.

So far, Brazil has held three national solar energy auction, 2014, and 2015 respectively. In 2014, about 1 GW of PV projects through public bidding, 2015 bid about 2 gigawatts, these projects need to start power in 2017 and 2018.

Solar Stratos solar aircraft project targets the stratosphere

Polaris solar PV net news: Switzerland environmental explorers ‘ generation-Domijan (Raphael Domjan) on December 7, was released with only flew into Earth’s stratosphere’s first-ever manned solar aircraft project “Solar Stratos” (Figure 1, Figure 2).

Figure 1: fly into the stratosphere “Solar Stratos” diagram (source: SolarStratos)

Figure 2: going to drive “Solar Stratos” flight to the stratosphere of the generation ˙ Domijan (source: SolarStratos)

Paul Domjan said, “Solar Stratos is to prove that even with current renewable energy technologies can also catch up with and even go beyond fossil fuels”. Domijan project solar sail alone “PlanetSolar” power boats sail project, and was completed in May 2012.

Solar Stratos is long and 8.5M wide (wings) 24.8M, 450kg two-seat single-engine propeller aircraft (Figure 3). In order to reduce weight, internal pressurization of the fuselage.

Figure 3: wing length of 24.8M “Solar Stratos” (source: SolarStratos)

Solar Stratos’s goal is to fly to an altitude of 25,000 m (25km) in the stratosphere, where the temperature is-70 ℃, pressure on the ground 5%. So, need to wear a space suit when the crew aboard. Space suit’s energy provided by the Sun, which is the world’s first.

Equipped with a conversion efficiency of 22~24% Solar Panel

Fuselage set solar cell conversion efficiency of 22~24% products, with a total area of 22m2. 20kWh of lithium-ion batteries for electricity storage, for driving 32kW/2200rpm maximum output power of the motor.

Switzerland team of development experts at home and abroad, Germany ElektraSolar company develops Solar Stratos fuselage, the aircraft is equipped with a PV system Switzerland electronics and Microtechnology Centre (CSEM) developed.

In the SolarStratos project, Germany Aerospace Center (DLR), serving as co-pilot’s ThierryPlojoux, MichaelLopez-Alegria astronauts and a number of organizations, enterprises, experts, plans to support the project founder and pilot duomiyang.

First test flights will be conducted February 2017, including landing, medium altitude flight in summer 2017 and the first stratospheric flight will be launched in 2018. Roundtrip stratospheric flight is expected to take 5-6 hours.

In the long run, they plan to develop solar-powered flying drones to explore the stratosphere.

Switzerland has also been implemented in July 2016 only by the Sun flew aircraft for the first time successfully completed the voyage “shinin” (Solar Impulse) project.

Solar Stratos is unlike Sun power project, it is not clear whether personnel exchanges between the two projects. However, through the implementation of two projects in the future Switzerland has the potential to become solar aircraft and UAV technology development center, and the world’s attention.

Original title: the objective is only to solar energy to fly into the stratosphere, “Solar Stratos” project

India PV market

Polaris solar PV net news: India is an emerging economy, India business must experience “India characteristic” test, while China’s export India larger photovoltaic cells, modules, encountered greater possibilities of trade protection.


India PV market

In the past year, India is the world’s most respected PV market. Benefit from the Government’s ambitious solar energy development plan, India’s PV installed capacity is growing exponentially.

International Renewable Energy Agency data shows that 2015 India new PV installed capacity 1.905GW, rose 141%, ranked fifth in the new PV installed capacity around the world, after China, Japan and the United States and the United Kingdom.

India lighting is rich in resources, while energy shortages in 2014, India’s new Prime Minister elected Mr MODI, solar power as India’s energy supply “the ultimate solution”, presented by 2022 100GW machine vision. Under the stimulus of the visible hand of the Government, India’s PV market is expanding rapidly. Third-party consulting firm BridgetoIndia forecast in 2016, India new PV installed capacity will reach 4.8GW.

Recognized as the industry, India is a PV market with huge potential, and as a regional market, India of China PV industry is more and more important. China Solar PV products import and export Chamber of Commerce Secretary General Jason predicted that by the end of this year, India is likely to surpass Japan, becoming China’s first photovoltaic cell, module exports market.

He moved to India

Chinese PV companies to enter India, and India PV market growth to match. The other hand, China’s major export markets such as the European Union and the United States have imposed on Chinese PV enterprises anti-dumping, anti-subsidy tax, Chinese PV companies have stepped up to develop India market.

Rose electronics technology company in Nanjing Wang Xiaojuan, international marketing manager recalls, she in India the first photovoltaic project, is an off-grid for pump project to provide electricity, this is similar to early Chinese photovoltaic market.

In 2009, India Government began to encourage the development of photovoltaic industry. First in India most Western Gujarat State to introduce solar energy incentives. By November of that year, India ushered in the first turning point of the photovoltaic industry, India promulgated the national solar energy plan, target by 2022 and PV installed capacity 22GW.

India is a huge stimulus for the development of the photovoltaic industry. In 2000, India PV installed capacity of only 0.001GW, until the end of 2010, India PV installed capacity but also 0.189GW. To achieve India’s national solar energy plan, meant for the next 12 years, every year more than 1GW of PV installed capacity.

As the India market growth, some of the international outlook of the Chinese PV industry begins in India doing business. Typical such as Trina solar (TSL. N)。 In June this year, Trina declared, India total PV module sales have reached 1GW,2015 years in India market share is about 20%. Trina solar at the end of 2010 into the India market, was the first to enter India PV market, one of the Chinese PV industry.

Overseas market of China PV companies generally turn to India is in 2013, the fuse is PV enterprises, China in 2013, the EU’s anti-dumping and countervailing duty final. EU PV double reverse and finally to achieve “price promise” in the form of end, Chinese companies may not be sold in the EU to below the minimum price commitments and set a ceiling of solar products in the EU market share in China.

In addition, due to cut solar subsidies in EU countries, the EU PV installed capacity decreased. In 2011, the EU new PV installed capacity up to 22.4GW,2015 years the dropped to 8GW. China PV module manufacturers choose to explore overseas emerging markets. Japan, and India as key regional markets of the Chinese PV industry layout.

Two or three lines similar to the rise in electronic science and technology of photovoltaic cell, module manufacturers give up most of the EU market. Wang Xiaojuan explained, first joined prices promise to go through the program, costs a lot of money on the other, on the premise of the lowest price promise, PV manufacturers may also be competitive, two or three small plants are more difficult to market space.

In May 2014, India people’s Party candidate, Mr MODI was elected as India’s new Prime Minister. People’s party promised during the campaign to develop clean energy.

MODI was pushing for change India’s national solar energy development plan, will expand capacity goals 5 times times, installed 100GW by 2022. India fast growing PV market, PV module manufacturers to attract China’s new increase in India’s layout.

Eastern Sunrise new Energy Corporation, 2015 years into the India market, often scoring components. Introduce Wang Hong, President of sunrise in the East, rising in the East in India did two main things, the first is to recruit locals to set up local sales team, to promote the East rising in India’s performance; second, with India’s major financial institutions to communicate and get their approval.

“Early this year at the end of last year, we have access to the India’s biggest banks approval. “Wang Hong said, now rising in the East at the Bank, treatment with leading component manufacturers such as Trina solar, solar, etc.

Wang explained that was recognized by Bank of India module is critical. Photovoltaic power plant construction depend on bank financing, if the Bank does not recognize the component, it will affect power stations financed, so hard to end the bid. He is expected by the end of this year, rising in the East in the India market sales, to the East the Sunrise 70% per cent of total sales in overseas markets.

India business

India PV market is a market opportunity for Chinese PV companies, but most enterprises face the opportunity to generally choose a more cautious attitude.

First India customer credit risk. Trina solar’s chief operating officer, Zhu Zhiguo said, five years ago, India a local component manufacturers to buy components from TRW, payment does not arrive for a long time, SkyTeam through legal way, until this year, the payment is fully settled.

“And India people do business, don’t wait until later to ask for money. “Zhu Zhiguo said, at first we didn’t know, has previous experience in the industry now.

Like light and India customers do business, apart from the early advance, once formal delivery would require the other to settle the purchase price, or provide a bank letter of credit.

This reflected especially in the small PV enterprises.

Wang Xiaojuan told reporters that PV manufacturers, strong ability to resist risks, may also give India customer accounts, or electronic, the “1MW business (bad debts), they will drag a dead company”, so l e in India selling batteries, components do not give account.

Sea run PV Deputy Chairman Xu Xianghua introduced said, sea run in India carried out business of experience is, first, sea run established has a evaluation system, will select and scale larger, and credit records good of customer deal; second, contract content to detailed consider, avoid left vulnerability, to other opportunity; third, even is Bank of credit, also to as select those more mass of Bank.

India improve the capacity of national solar energy plan targets, the Chinese PV companies were announced in India investment plan, but India weak industrial base limited the Chinese PV industry in India investments.

For example, last May, India witnessed by Prime Minister MODI, Gao jifan, Chairman of Trina with India CEO of Welspun, VineetMittal signed a cooperation memorandum of cooperation between the two sides to be in India, 1GW 1GW battery component manufacturing base.

Zhu Zhiguo told reporters that it is willingness to representative Trina, is currently in India to invest production base has no timetable. This is because the PV industry chain, from upstream polysilicon to wafers, cells to final components, as well as ancillary and auxiliary materials, India domestic production capacity is weak, China PV industry in India to set up factories, needed raw materials still need to be shipped from China in the past.

“Under the current market price, in India to set up factories will definitely be loss. “Zhu Zhiguo said, India set up a factory than from Chinese exports of photovoltaic cells, modules, higher cost at least 5%-10%. Zhu Zhiguo says Trina optimistic about India’s prospects, at the right time, in India set up plants, “but there is no see.”

Xu Xianghua says India PV market is very large, localization is a trend. Hairun is considered in India to set up factories and upgrading domestic production line combining relative backwardness of the production line in the country to move to India.

India PV market leap another investment opportunity is India PV investment opportunities. Sales compared to components, PV needs to hold, turn, need to take on more risk. Xu Xianghua said hirun India investment strategy of power plant is, working with local power plant developers, account for only a small share, a financial investor, but also in order to bundle together and customers, “promoting the sale of components.”

Number of PV industry in India looking for investment opportunities in PV power plant, but little progress.

Wang said that Sunrise is also looking for opportunities in the East, but it was not found. India PV market has grown rapidly, photovoltaic power plant, the competition is very fierce, “is hard to find really good project.”

Trade protection risk

As China’s photovoltaic products exported to India market surge, China PV companies meet growing risk of trade protection.

As early as 2012, India to China included multiple countries and regions exporting to India initiating anti-dumping investigation of photovoltaic products. On May 22, 2014, the India Ministry of Commerce and published the final rule on the matter and recommended a $0.11-$ 0.81 per watt of the anti-dumping duty.

According to India the law, the Ministry of taxes if the resolution of the case, from the India Ministry of Commerce and industry within three months from the date of the final, before August 22, 2014, in its official bulletin published on the appropriate anti-dumping duty order.

India Finance eventually chose not to enforce the India Ministry of Commerce and industry award, India China PV industry of anti-dumping, anti-subsidy investigations ended with no tax case.

Jason believes that India double tax-free closed with India related to the new Government’s ambitious solar energy development plan, India weak local photovoltaic industry, India’s solar capacity plan, the need for an international, especially China’s PV capacity.

Mr MODI’s solar energy development needs China’s PV industry, but on the other hand, development of domestic manufacturing, Mo Dili pushing the idea.

India has been working to support the Government India domestic PV manufacturing enterprises. India national solar energy plan the photovoltaic plant is divided into two categories, a production quota will be subject to local restrictions can only buy local manufacturers of photovoltaic products; second class, there are no such restrictions.

Jason believes that India PV products to China “double reverse” no tax after closing, a second “double” the risk always exists. China to India export scale of photovoltaic products are proliferating; the other is PV industry in India market competition, India is the world’s photovoltaic products are one of the lowest average market price.

The end of 2014, China electrical import and export Chamber of Commerce has information, India might of China PV product launched a second “double”, the Chamber of Commerce of the Chinese PV industry issued a warning, but just a false alarm.

Jason believes that Chinese PV companies face a difficult situation, in India the local factory, is to avoid the possibility of “double reverse” one of the effective measures, but India industry is weak, which means Chinese PV companies must be in India investment “industrial chain”, additional investment.

Jason told reporters that now India domestic PV manufacturers are still relatively weak, India China Solar plans are needed, but with India the growth of local manufacturers, “China PV industry faces the risk of trade friction is growing.”

Original title: India PV market

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, the energy Bureau of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, issued the notice on adjusting the PV power plant in Guangxi reserve items list, new Guangxi “2016” 31st document.


PV power station in Guangxi repository list

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

PV power station in Guangxi repository list

Original title: energy Bureau of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on the adjusted PV power plant in Guangxi Reserve item notification list

22 photovoltaic business exit central price undertakings export volume accounted

Polaris solar PV net news: under 15 years ago to sign the Protocol on China’s accession to the WTO, China had be December 12 this year under a WTO Agreement “market economy” status. As a result, best known as a variation, launched anti-dumping and other trade remedy investigations against China country, can no longer use “surrogate country” approach (industry considers the serious bias in this method) to measure whether there is dumping of Chinese products.

However, until now, the European Union, the United States, and Japan still insist that does not recognize China as a market economy country. In this regard, the recent December 9, Commerce Ministry spokesman Shen Danyang, sternly refuted in a press release, with a few “strong dissatisfaction” the word said, few WTO members in fulfilling obligations under article 15th position on the issue of vagueness, attempted in anti-dumping investigations against China continued to use “alternative country” approach, the Chinese side expresses strong dissatisfaction and resolute opposition.

In fact, China does not recognize the “market economy” status, some still play under cover of a trade remedy with China against the industry. For example, a few days ago, the European Commission on the grounds of violations of price undertakings related articles, announced that photovoltaic double-reverse to China cancelled two Chinese companies in the case of price undertakings, and the imposition of antidumping duties and countervailing duties.

According to reporter roughly, as of now, there are 22 Chinese companies in EU’s photovoltaic double reverse in which was cancelled, or active out of the price undertakings. “These companies accounted for China PV export price above 90%. “One person in the PV industry, told reporters.

22 photovoltaic business “exit” price promise

According to a recent notice issued by the European Commission, the EU said, because Ningbo Hua Shun solar technology Ltd and Jiangsu sailafu solar system limited violations of price undertakings related provisions, it was decided from the announcement date to China PV double reverse in which the withdrawal of the 2 Chinese companies undertaking, and the imposition of antidumping duties and countervailing duties.

On this basis, according to the EU’s photovoltaic double trial final, Ningbo Hua Shun solar technology, anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties are 36.2% and 11.5%, Jiangsu sailafu solar systems Ltd of anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties are 41.3% and 6.4%.

As early as August 2013, EU imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic products reached a “price promise”, although the official price has not publicly committed to specific content (price, quota, etc), but, in fact, recognized that “price promise” China’s exports to Europe in crystalline silicon PV products price floor is set up to 0.57 euros per watt.

In other words, China PV companies only make not less than € 0.57/w price commitments to European sales of photovoltaic products, to the EU in order to avoid paying the high cost of anti-dumping and countervailing duties.

He Shi, industry on has concerns, the restrictive policy (price commitment) from 2013 implementation to 2015, will with time of over, gradually release on China PV, especially polysilicon, and Silicon PV products of negative effect: If PV products production cost reduced, led to other competition opponents PV products price reduced, had to comply with 0.57 Euro/w lower provides of China PV products will gradually lost in European market of competitiveness.

Choose the lesser of two evils, and paid relatively high countervailing duties, make a “price promise”, temporarily keeping the European market is undoubtedly the best choice for China PV.

Is considered a “comeback”, January 24, 2014, China’s Commerce Ministry announced a solar grade silicon to imports from the EU anti-dumping investigation preliminary results, ruled that imported solar grade poly silicon originating in EU dumping, real damage to China’s polysilicon industry, and there is a causal relationship between dumping and injury.

Sources told reporters that “initial award, the EU’s largest producers of polysilicon–Germany WACKER was convicted of the anti-dumping duty of 21.8%, countervailing duty of 10.7%, a total of 32.5%”.

However, shortly after the March 14, 2014, Germany WACKER to trade remedy investigations unit-Ministry of Commerce, China import and export fair trade Bureau submitted a price undertaking.

It should be said that price with the Chinese PV industry commitment of the European Union, as well as the polysilicon price commitments reached between China and the EU, there has been a wrong and so on.

“The simplest data firms, in China and Germany reached WACKER polysilicon ‘ price promise ‘ premise, Germany WACKER 2014 still had its sales to China 30,000 tons of polysilicon, prior to the implementation of trade relief measures even more of the 2013 growth 16%. “A person described to reporters,” in contrast to this, owing to certain EU PV ‘ price commitments ‘,2014 year China’s exports to the EU countries had dropped to 2.708 billion dollars, down by 15.92%. ”

Not only that, the reporter learned that the figures make pricing commitments, Germany has remained a exports to China poly silicon WACKER 20% annual growth rate.

“It is learnt that the China and Germany WACKER signed ‘ price promise ‘ only price limits, prices in the domestic market and export commitments of ASP is very close and due to exchange rate fluctuations has is not a limit. Year ‘ price promise ‘ have no effect on its own exports. “People in the industry told reporters,” but it is unfair, while the EU commitment to the PV price is harsh prices and limit harsh price limits, price commitments China PV after sharp decline in exports to the EU, namely the EU actually upstream and downstream from a comprehensive suppression of domestic polysilicon and PV industry development “.

Tearing up the price undertaking trade posture more unequal

Today, in the European Union unilaterally reached with the Chinese PV industry under the background of price undertakings, this no more.

In August this year, media reported, following the August 15 announced the cancellation after 5 Chinese PV companies undertaking eligible, EU end of August lifted including Ningbo Ouda optoelectronics, Zhejiang Xin Kai new energy technology, and Shandong linuo 3 China PV companies undertaking eligible.

At this point, due to the EU warning, then opting out PV, longi, Dongying photovoltaic, solar, Sheng photoelectric, Yu-hui Sun, Trina, faith PV photovoltaic module manufacturer, China, 8, have been “quit” Europe PV price commitment agreements total number of the Chinese PV industry has reached 22.

“De facto unequal and unfair is of secondary importance. “In the eyes of these people, Germany WACKER and Germany have no incentive to continue to fight for EU trade fair treatment for Chinese PV. “This should is led to EU recently various challenged China of important factors one of, like this year May, EU Parliament all Conference Yu through has a items non-legislation sex resolution, against admitted China market status and so on, again like this times in more than 10 days within intensive canceled has 8 home China PV Enterprise price commitment qualification, and threatened to full canceled on Pearson VUE China PV enterprise of ‘ double anti-‘ tariff exemption and so on. ”

“Compared to lobbying the EU for China PV, Germany WACKER polysilicon more interests between China and the trade dispute. Sino-EU trade dispute will not affect its current, but direct contact between the US and China hit Germany WACKER in United States, Tennessee, 20,000 tons of polycrystalline silicon project, this project has been building for two years, started production this year, WACKER hopes that these poly silicon and Germany producing polysilicon as barrier free access to the Chinese market. “The people in the industry said,” there is no digestion of the PV market in China, polysilicon only discontinued in Europe and America. ”

The source also added to reporters, “in fact, this also gave China a lesson, we have polysilicon to Europe anti-dumping and polysilicon adopted a different anti-dumping to the United States ‘ attitude ‘, the different effects of the receive. Therefore, handling trade disputes, we speak of strategy, to study in Europe and America, a preemptive strike. ”

Today, more and more Chinese PV companies have “price promise” limited interest, on the one hand, with the passage of time, photovoltaic cells, modules prices have pierced “price promise” upset China photovoltaic product sold in Europe from this channel has no advantage whatsoever.

The other hand, the Chinese PV industry is no longer dependent on Government in favour of actively “go out” to avoid double reverse.

In the field of silicon, although “price promise” not on Germany WACKER Giants constraint, but Chinese polysilicon companies are not waiting for the rescue of national trade remedy, or under difficult circumstances to promote technological progress and industrial development. Now, but Europe and the case of the shrinking manufacturing polycrystalline silicon in its downstream products, relying on China PV to digest huge polysilicon capacity.

Original title: 22 domestic PV companies meet the EU imposed anti-dumping duties exports 90% “exit” price promise

2017 five PV market trends

Polaris solar PV net news: 2016 China market in the first half over installing, US-India market grew rapidly, boosting total demand this year of up to 69.5GW. According to EnergyTrend Gold level report estimates, 2017 for solar needs high-speed development yilai almost 0 growth of year, excessive of glut may makes next year Xia half reproduction price disorder storm, not only component price year decreases will over 10%, in the upstream more crystal silicon, and wafer, and battery tablets price low points are may again innovation low, so next year the enterprise all put drop this as primary target, engaged 2017 of industry trough.


2017 five PV market trends

EnergyTrend counting 20,175 trends are as follows:

(1) China and the three big market decline simultaneously supply chain than in 2016

China PV indicator just below the 2016 2017 and the United States grab mounted boom diminished, Japan wholesale buy rates (FiT) decline and other unfavorable factors, ranking top three needs will change over the next year, EnergyTrend Deputy Manager Lin Yanrong points out that, the rise of India might replace Japan, demand for third country’s throne.

However, India and emerging market growth does not make up for, American and Japanese recessions, first-tier component plants to consolidate shipping territory, end of quote frequently break next year, component US$0.38/W of the market price may be due early next year, falling to only at the end of US$0.33/W. Prices, upstream vendors will face not only a great loss, first-tier component plants is also difficult to maintain gross profit above 15%, 2017 solar as a whole to profit will be lower than on the supply chain by 2016.

(2) the third real estate releases, tends to be around the same price

United States from 2014 on China-Taiwan cross-strait up “double reverse” after sanctions, proliferation of solar cells, module production capacity in South-East Asia, avoiding the high taxes and enjoys a high price because of the far edge, third estate can make a profit is good. However, China’s first-tier manufacturers overseas arms race war spread over huge, from under the recent rapid killing of American and European stock prices can be seen, the third estate had enough cover there are trade barriers between the US and Europe, high market due to trade barriers in the past between America and Europe, the current price minus shipping market, China has almost the same price. In the case of global component prices next year will be more in line, winning the amount does not depend on the capacity of the third capacity, but is there a way to produce differentiated products such as Crystal or Crystal PERC.

Third estate investment apart from avoiding us and European trade barriers outside the double, it can also make direct roots in the local emerging market; but only overseas production cells, acting as the main force of the factory, the profit would be lower overseas component price compression, see advantages, to prevent the third estate against the operational burden of enterprises.

(3) PERC volume leading Crystal City accounted for more than 32%

As technology matures, PERC has become indicators of enterprises ‘ competitiveness, global PERC capacity this year has reached 13GW,2017 more rival 20GW mark. However, according to EnergyTrend statistics, PERC has not produced this year to 4GW, showed PERC bottleneck is not in the capacity and stable production of batteries. With many factory output, efficiency of synchronous lifting, 2017 will become a year of PERC by leaps and bounds, major PERC module wattage and will rise to 295~300W next year, production is expected to double.

Benefiting from the PERC product with high performance as well as leader in heating, Crystal market shares continue to improve this year and next, particularly 5.5GW leader program-Crystal share next year could be closer to 80%, together with specific provinces release leader plans, as well as poverty alleviation and distributed rooftop system preferences such as high performance products, Crystal will be close to 40% market share in China next year. Lin Yan Rong said that outside of exhibition of domestic demand in China, Eng, single crystal, the high ratio of PERC is also gradually expanding the overseas market than Crystal overseas market share held steady this year, Crystal will also significantly improve market share overseas next year, the global percentage of single crystal 23.5% rose to 32% per cent next year from this year, future.


2017 five PV market trends

2015~2017 percentage of component outputs

(4) prices plummet polycrystalline diamond line turn the tide

Black silicon technology the debate this year, but by the second half of this year, market conditions rapidly deteriorated and investment into a wait-and-see attitude, makes the diamond wire cutting mix black silicon technology have not made significant progress. 2017 black diamond lines cut in the silicon technology is still the biggest bottleneck of polycrystalline products, but the prices plummet, Crystal market share expansion of exhortations, diamond wire cutting multicrystalline silicon wafer is imperative. Water level in cash remained tight in 2017, EnergyTrend think dry etching of high initial capital investment may lower heat, enterprises will be the main consideration in wet, or additives in the form of producing black Silicon products.

For now, selection of black silicon technology is still depending on GCL leading manufacturers such as, solar, BYD will take what waves. But business models to observations, vertically integrated factory in cost savings to cut silicon wafers into King Kong lines, increased costs by the deduction of import wet black Silicon can also save about each US$0.06 amount, appearance and its own capacity to the cell is less demanding, for vertically integrated factory to make wet black silicon there is no small advantage.

Professional battery factory of diamond line cut wafer only foreign shopping, is shopping price still is slightly lower than General wafer, but save cost limited, in next year middle manufacturers only tighten belts live of situation Xia, mixed acid additives of etched method is may just transition of technology, but can let enterprise in not increased equipment spending of situation Xia import diamond line cut of wafer, recently became professional battery factory focuses on of programme one of, also let diamond line cut polysilicon tablets is expected to in next year Xia half accelerated volume.

(5) PERC-n market value for compression market share expansion

China’s “Super leader” plans again raised the motivations of manufacturers into the n-type technology, however expensive n-type equipment, technology diversity, coupled with the 2017 down is far more important than efficiency, high cost of n-type technology making inroads. Expected HJT, PERT, MWT technology also is vying for the special needs of small niche market, double power generation issues will catch light, light complementary topics continue to simmer, but power generation on the back of the overall plant yield of great help, but power generation on the back of testing and identification mechanisms are yet to be standardized, difficult to progress next year.

Overall, the wild swings in the industrial supply and demand imbalance and the end-market demand, resulting in 2016-2017 solar prices are rapidly collapse faults, companies in order to survive, must resort to maintain or even improve the quality while reducing, PERC and black Silicon will be the twin to reach this goal.

Also, again in response to price out, companies will rethink the whole industry chain products and profit-making mode of distribution, failed to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturers in the storm would be difficult to spend the harsh market conditions. Therefore, whether it is followed, and enhance the capacity of single crystal, Crystal ratio, reducing the pioneer import diamond line or black Silicon products, or for future trends into the downstream market or distributed, the positioning of the enterprise are required to more clearly in order to prevent being marginalized by drastic changes in the environment.

Original title: 2017 solar disorder reduce the prices more important than efficiency

Zhejiang Provincial Development and Reform Commission issued the 2016 list of

Polaris solar PV net news relating to city and County (city, district) people’s Governments and relevant departments at the provincial level (units):

Agreed to by the provincial government, and now 2016 second province list of additional key construction projects will be issued to you.

Include the addition of key construction projects in the province a total of 86, 155 billion yuan of total investment. Different areas, different departments and units concerned, in accordance with the management of key construction projects in Zhejiang Province (provincial government order No. 270) requirements and completes the construction of the project began working on various elements of security, service coordination, and ensure that projects in the past year to start construction as soon as possible, start of districts and cities, was included in the province’s annual mission assessment. Meanwhile, units should carefully organize the implementation of each project to ensure construction quality and safety.

Development and Reform Commission of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Province key leading group

The December 7, 2016

2016 lists added to the second batch of key construction projects:

1. Wenzhou hongtai taishun three Chief 35MWp, forestry and light complementary power generation project

2. Zhejiang Yueqing limited liability company of 25 megawatts of photovoltaic power generation project

3. Jiaxing power plant photovoltaic power generation project

4. Zhejiang Changxing PV

5. Quzhou Kecheng 160MW Thai energy eco-park project

6. Liu Heng of Zhoushan power plant photovoltaic power plant project

7. Crystal power economic development zone, yuhuan 120MWP complementary terrestrial photovoltaic power generation project

8. Haining Zhejiang jinko co new annual output of 1200 MW solar modules and 300 megawatts of solar cell production line technical conversion project

Original title: Zhejiang development and Reform Commission issued the 2016 list of additional construction of the second batch of key PV projects

Anhui province for 2016 first served list of distributed PV option public

Arctic star solar PV network news: according to on perfect first built first have distributed PV power station management of notification (WAN energy new can (2016) 13th,) requirements, Hefei, city development reform Board reported has feixi macro Hui feixi Feng Le 20MW fishing light complementary PV power project, 54 a project, intends application into 2016 third batch first built first have alternative project directory, now be publicity.

Publication time from 2016-12-12 to 2016-12-20. If you have comments or questions, please come, letter and email me feedback (anonymous communications inadmissible in principle).

Annex:

Declarations into Anhui province for 2016 first distributed PV variant list (public release)


Anhui province for 2016 first served list of distributed PV option public

Original title: Bureau of Anhui Province energy about inclusion for 2016 first-served list of distributed PV option public

Lockout after four years 2 billion expansion financing polysilicon project in

Polaris solar PV net news: resources in Erdos, Inner Mongolia company limited (hereinafter “Ordos”) holding subsidiary–Inner Mongolia eerduosi polycrystalline silicon industry Co Ltd (hereinafter “company”) has disclosed, will restart the polysilicon project was discontinued four years.

News announcement immediately triggered heated debate. Industry questioned in the PV industry of increasing demand and production capacity now, restart production project in Erdos will polysilicon market turmoil, causing prices to fall further. In this context, Ordos contrarian layout polysilicon or there is a big risk.

For the above question, November 29 call Erdos, General Manager of the company said, a staff member of the Office, company recently did in the original 3000 tons polysilicon project was carried out on the basis of expansion of production with an annual output of 80 million tons. As to whether the projects previously losses, losses, as well as expansion project received the Government’s approval, you need to provide written documentation from the leadership before they can return. But after a reporter wrote to, as of press time has not received any official response in Ordos.

Polysilicon project stalled for four years

Above polysilicon projects in many industries in the Ordos is ill-fated.

Public information, in April 2008, the Ordos established company, formally into the polysilicon industry. In accordance with the layout, constructed in many phases of the project construction, including a project with an annual output of 3000 tons, containing molten polysilicon 1000 tons, circuit level 1000 tons of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon for solar cell of 1000 tons. Ordos also have great expectations for the project and expects normal production year can be added 1.68 billion yuan of sales revenue can be added after tax profits of 543 million Yuan.

“Indeed, according to the plan, the company first furnace of polycrystalline silicon project at the end of September 2010, but produced products are not competitive in the market, sales are sluggish, so two years later, on May 1, 2012, the company decided to suspend the polycrystalline silicon project. “Erdos said one who declined to be named, the company does have the upper hand on the procurement of raw materials, but the polysilicon industry needs technical support, if the technology is not up to, then the failure is inevitable.

However, the Erdos public information makes no mention of the previous. Erdos once said, polycrystalline silicon project was suspended, because in the years after 2009, United States two crisis, European debt crisis systemic risk impact, quickly formed a sniper of China PV industry in the international market trend, Silicon market price lines plunge, Erdos had to be “broken wrist bleeding” suspended poly silicon project.

While polysilicon project was suspended, but the company has been in four years at huge cost, up to hundreds of millions of Yuan each year. Ordos Insider above.

The people at the press conference was confirmed in the subsequent investigation. Public information, by the end of September 2016, total company liabilities 1.948 billion yuan, mainly dealing with raw materials and engineering equipment of 198 million Yuan, cover shareholder liquidity 1.349 billion yuan in principal and payable by shareholders into interest income arising from liquidity loan of 360 million Yuan. This includes: company working capital borrowing of 512 million Yuan, 134.34 million Yuan as of September 2016 calculation of interest; cashmere group cash flow borrowing 496 million Yuan, interest at the end of September 2016 129.08 million; and metallurgical company working capital borrowing of 341 million Yuan, interest at the end of September 2016 96.67 million Yuan.

In addition, the reporter also noted, in a recent report issued by the China Securities Regulatory Commission on the Ordos administrative project review of comments mentioned in the notice, polysilicon companies were suspended in May 2012 line by the photovoltaic industry slump and goes into power production. But late in 2013 and 2015, respectively, “3000 tons/year of solar grade silicon” groups of related assets provision for impairment of 122.281 million Yuan, 106.7477 million Yuan.

“3000 tons/year of solar grade silicon” groups of related asset impairment test method, test procedure, selection of key parameters, CSRC hopes Ordos to comparable listed companies in the same industry conditions that provision for the adequacy of the provision for impairment. But Erdos has applied to the China Securities Regulatory Commission delayed response, so there is no seeing the company’s formal explanation on these issues.

Tide expansion has been questioned

Or perhaps because the company generates billions in cost pressures, Ordos had to restart the project, so as to activate the polysilicon project assets. The sources said, the problem is, expansion of 8000 tons/year, the project can make profit is the key.

In addition to questions about the future earnings expectations were beyond insiders also questioned during the investigation process the project approval procedures or “defective”. For example, the Ordos company still take rent on brothers power metallurgy plant of the group.

In this regard, the said Office staff, Ordos, current company does power metallurgy plant of the group, but for company promotion of 8000 t/polysilicon project by government departments, the relevant procedures, but did not respond.

Even underdog, Ordos 8000 tons of polycrystalline silicon expansion project was started on November 21, 2016. The polycrystalline silicon industry in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, limited annual production capacity of 8000 tons of high-purity polycrystalline silicon material technology, low energy project feasibility study report (hereinafter the report) shows that polysilicon project in Ordos during the work stoppage, the polysilicon production technology was fully investigated, visits and exchanges, and advanced upgrade expansion programme.

Upgrading a project from August 2016 ready to implement technology, completed by August 2017, commissioning, production change expanded to 8000 tons/year; subsequent upgrading of the second phase of the scheme starting from 2017 to conduct technological transformation, complete all technical projects by 2020, through two technical capacity up to 18000 tons/year. The polysilicon planned final total up to 50000 tonnes/year.

Well, so much planning, money come from?, the report shows, the Ordos intends to implement technical innovation and expansion of company 3000 tons/year to 8000 tons/year of the plan, the company needs to be increase 2.086 billion yuan. That money will be invested by the Company original parties to increase funding available.

Among them, the Ordos needs new capital of 750.96 million Yuan, equity ratio is still 36% of Inner Mongolia Erdos cashmere group needed new capital of 813.54 million Yuan, the equity ratio is still 39% of Inner Mongolia Erdos electric power metallurgy group needs new capital of 521.5 million Yuan, the equity ratio remains at 25%.

Modest but above shareholder’s equity. 2014, 2015-cashmere sector revenues and gross margin decline if we invest heavily in polycrystalline silicon project is bound to put pressure on the company’s financial.

Polysilicon project in Erdos of most concern to investors whether the future profits can swallow 1.948 billion yuan in debt problems, both analysts also PV experts are not optimistic about the domestic polysilicon industry.

Vice Director of China renewable energy Association, Meng Xiangan said in history, happened many times excess capacity of PV industry, some companies have suffered huge losses, now is solar power in China, but that doesn’t mean strong.

According to Germany 2020 polysilicon market Outlook report issued BernreuterResearch displayed, from 2017 to 2019, global new capacity will reach 141000 metric tons (70% in Chinese) plan put into operation and the new PV projects annual growth rate is expected to fall below 10%, the authors of the report also pointed out that the difference between supply and demand will lead to increased competition. Some projects are expected to be delayed, others will eventually become stranded investment, some of the manufacturers will disappear from the market.

Therefore, polysilicon project in Erdos in lockout contrarian expansion success four years later, has yet to be market test.

Original title: shut down four years later ‘ 2 billion expansion financing polysilicon project in Erdos is questioned

PV carbon emissions 2015 global average of 20 g kWh

Polaris solar PV net news: there is no doubt that PV power generation without carbon emissions. PV module production process requires energy, so PV has carbon emissions. Netherlands UtrechtUniversity scholar Dr WilfriedvanSark 1975-2015 is calculated by global production of photovoltaic modules between energy consumption and carbon emissions, the report published in the journal NatureCommunications. Of course, PV module production process of carbon emissions depends on the photovoltaic production time and place. As China’s energy structure dominated by coal, PV module production in China’s high carbon emissions the European production of PV modules 1 time. But as technology advances and changes in the energy mix, declining emissions of PV module production.


PV carbon emissions: 2015 global average of 20 g/kWh

In considering a PV module production circumstances of time and place, Dr WilfriedvanSark’s team calculated 1975 global PV modules within the full life-cycle (say 30) average 400-500 grams of carbon emissions per kilowatt hour in 2015 and PV modules within the life cycle of the global average of only 20 grams of carbon emissions per kilowatt hour. 1975 each PV module take 20 years of run time to recovery of the energy consumed by the PV modules, 2015 solar components energy payback period of less than 2 years. In General, whenever the global PV installed capacity doubled, PV module power consumption dropped production by some 12%, 17-24% reduction in carbon emissions.


PV carbon emissions: 2015 global average of 20 g/kWh

Original title: PV carbon emissions: 2015 global average of 20 g/kWh

Shanxi go capacity road where the energy industry

Polaris solar PV net news: on December 5, in order to improve the atmospheric environment quality in winter, main urban area of Changzhi city, Shanxi province in “zero out of coal-fired” operations, staff community grid units, household visits to mobilize, over more than 40 villages, bian Cun, tens of thousands of tons of coal into clean all replacement of Coke, allow people to use clean fuels and environmental protection for the winter. This is Shanxi for treatment of coal-fired carbon emissions a little shot of energy industry innovation project.

Conform to requirements of the energy revolution, Shanxi is to hold a “low carbon” and “green” articles, adhere to the clean and efficient use of coal, develop new energy, forming the wheel drive, low-carbon green integrated energy system, to optimize energy structure to promote industrial restructuring and upgrading.

“Capacity” after “: extension of industry chains

October 2016, the Shanxi Luan group in shigejie coal mine was closed. This is Shanxi coal “capacity” in microcosm.

This year, Shanxi coal enterprises in the province took the lead out of 20 million tons of goals before 2020, out of more than 100 million tons, which accounted for about national coal production target of one-tenth.

“Capacity”, the quality improve?

In order to promote clean and efficient use of coal, Shanxi coal prices began using a new generation of washing coal equipment. Malan coal preparation plant of Shanxi coking coal group Xishan coal electricity company, for example, introduced its heavy medium shallow slot sorting technique not only improves the quality of coal, and less loss of 60,000 tons of coal annually. Sold coal for power transmission, Shanxi coal industry restructuring is another “brilliant idea”. The “Thirteen-Five” period, continue to optimize the allocation of energy resources in Shanxi, adhere to the simultaneous development of coal transmission, actively advancing North, jinzhong, jindong 3 qianwanqianwa level large modern coal-fired power delivery base construction.

As another strong point of the Shanxi coal transformation, in the Shanxi coal chemical industry is also offering a series of “combined”-

In coal business oil industry field, focus support Lu Ann Group 1.8 million tons/years coal base liquid products, and 4 million tons/years coal base oil and the chemicals coal clean using oil electrification hot integration project, and Jin coal Group 2 million tons/years coal base synthesis oil project, focus project starts construction or production worked; in coal business olefin industry aspects, Shanxi support with coal group, and Shanxi coking coal and research institutions joint established engineering technology research center, in improved perfect of based Shang ordered construction coal business olefin large industrialization upgrade model device, For gasification, and purification, and synthesis, full process of system optimization, formed has independent intellectual property of full process package; in coal business aromatic field, full using CAs Shanxi coal of by, domestic high-end development institutions of latest research results, active towards in Shanxi carried out coal business aromatic industrialization model project, focus solution methanol business aromatic reactor design and zoom, and reaction heat balance and engineering optimization, and industrialization application, key technology problem, strive to “Thirteen-Five” during achieved preliminary industrialization……

New energy “scene”: breaking a single coal-fired power structure

As a coal-rich province, about 10 trillion cubic meters of coal-bed methane gas reserves in Shanxi, accounting for one-third. A wealth of resources, coal-bed methane power generation become an important field of development of new energy industry. The “Thirteen-Five” period, Shanxi has layout, speeding up the exploitation of gas cogeneration project, promoting the construction of gas generation project, especially low density gas in coal Enterprise power nearby.

Meanwhile, Northwestern Shanxi province, luliang and zhongtiaoshan and concentration areas of wind energy. In ensuring the effective elimination of wind power on the basis of Shanxi are strongly promoting the advanced, high performance, high power wind power, encourage better resources and development conditions to speed up wind energy development, actively promoting these three wind farm projects in the region building and North of qianwanqianwa-level wind power bases.

In the solar industry, Datong, Changzhi, yuncheng city, and 3 new energy model city full use “solar + subsidence area of governance”, “solar + the poor” “solar + agricultural production” and “urban and rural energy low carbon solar +” “+ solar industrial carbon emissions control” mode, develop optoelectronics industry, model for other local models. Meanwhile, active solar heating techniques to promote residential use of solar energy and solar energy utilization and building integration technology, the construction of several large-scale photovoltaic power generation project and solar heating and cooling demonstration project.

Shanxi is also active in promoting biomass energy projects. To further enrich and innovative bio-energy use and ways to accelerate jinzhong, yuncheng in Shanxi province, Changzhi, Xinzhou area, such as the use of straw resource construction of biomass power generation project in terms of geothermal energy use, mainly between Taiyuan and yuncheng, in the construction of a number of deep geothermal energy for heating in winter, large-scale promotion of development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy demonstration projects.

According to the “Thirteen-Five” plan by 2020, Shanxi wind power, photovoltaic, coal-bed methane power generation installed capacity respectively, and 18 million-kilowatt and 7 million-kilowatt, a new energy industry is gradually breaking the previous structure of single coal-fired power station in Shanxi province, as its energy industry innovation and beautiful landscape.

Original title: Shanxi energy industry innovation aimed at “low carbon + green”

The Internet giant marriage of new energy

Polaris solar PV net news: compared with traditional energy sources, new energy with less pollution, large reserves, wide distribution and so on. Now, global attention, more and more of the new energy, new energy use is also becoming more and more common. The International Energy Agency (IEA) 2000-2030 international power demand studies have shown, new energy generation annual growth the fastest. Now, the boom in the development of new energy, outside a giant Internet companies also are turning to new energy fields.

Changes: a new global energy industry employment is increasing

In the context of transformation of the global energy, new sources of competitive advantage is more and more obvious. In recent years, the solar panels are getting cheaper, converted into energy efficiency and higher. In a place with abundant wind resources, even in the absence of subsidies, wind power is very cost competitive advantage. In some areas, wind power is cheaper than using fossil fuels can be achieved. New technology is concerned, “distributed” was substituted for “centralized”, “matrix” was substituted for “single point”, enterprises engaged in energy development and utilization of individual, goals may only meet near the region’s energy needs.

In 2015, the new energy investment worldwide into a hot state. The end of March this year, the United Nations Environment Programme and other institutions, according to a new report released last year, the global new energy sector investments amounted to $285.9 billion, set a new 2011 annual investment record of $278.5 billion. Rapid development of new energy, but also create more jobs. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) said in a report a few days ago, global new energy industry employment is rising.

United States, for example, in 2015, the solar industry employees for the first time over oil and gas exploration industry. Solar industry added jobs employment in all other industries as much as 12 times.

: Apple, Microsoft, Facebook, Google and other Giants have layout of new energy sector

Apple’s environmental Vice President Lisa Jackson revealed at the Conference this spring, 93% of the company’s global operations, have been dependent on sustainable energy.

“Climate change is one of the urgent challenges, now is the time for action. “Apple CEO Cook said, not only to use clean energy, should also gradually help your supply chain can use clean energy. It should be said that apples have a soft spot for new energy projects.

Bill Gates’s focus on new energy for a long time, on November 30 last year, opening day of the Paris Summit, by Bill ˙ Bill Gates, 27 technology from around the world, Internet, industry and the investment community’s business leaders was jointly set up in Paris and the University of California Energy breaking the Union.

This is a global coalition of private investors, aimed at providing mankind with affordable, reliable energy, near-zero carbon emissions. And as early as 2014, Microsoft’s purchase of renewable energy, more than Apple. Microsoft, in addition to buying green energy, also announced this year to work with CommonwealthofVirginia and DominionVirginiaPower, brings a lot of solar energy for Virginia residents. In November this year Microsoft announced that it has signed two wind power project agreement, total will buy 237 megawatts of wind power, making Microsoft in United States investments of more than 500 megawatts of wind power projects.

Social network Facebook announced, will invest 500 million dollars in United States Texas Fort Worth to build a large data center, it depends entirely on wind power. Within three years, all of Facebook data center, half of the energy consumption will depend on green energy. Facebook and Citigroup energy, Starwood energy, Alterraa the power companies and other enterprises, provide the wind power.

Google since 2007, spent hundreds of millions of dollars in wind power, solar energy, geothermal power and other areas to test the waters. Google recently said it was buying enough renewable energy to cover the next year, the company’s global electricity consumption. Google’s global infrastructure and energy Director, Gary ˙ Damasi said that in 2010, Google signed its first long-term renewable energy agreement, reached 19 after similar deals, making it the largest buyer of renewable energy. Trends: energy technology development will rely more and more on data and Internet

According to reports, the more Internet companies cut into the energy of the Internet is through the provision of technical services. February 2015, the AutoGrid and Microsoft cooperate to AutoGrid energy based data platform, makes MicrosoftAzure cloud platforms service power and energy companies. Analysts believe that Internet companies interested in marriage with the energy industry, the most important reason is that in order to seize market opportunities, “Internet +” age, “the Internet + energy” the huge market of course is envious of the fat.

Experts say that compared with other traditional industries, Internet companies in the revolutionary era of energy production and consumption, and indeed have a more acute sense of touch and the ability to integrate better.

The Internet is changing the way we live, travel and communication,, micro-grid distributed generation and energy storage technology matures, it will soon change the way people use Internet are certainly not miss out on this new development area.

Global large certification and energy professional institutions DNV-GL CEO DitlevEngel in speech Shi said, next of ten years in the, energy technology of development will will is unprecedented have fast, and these technology will increasingly rely on Yu data and interconnected, will has many new products, and technology, and will appeared many industry new of competitors, also will requirements we to has many of innovation, to has new of thinking way.

Original title: the Internet giant “marriage” of new energy

Japan above 500kW solar panels in the third quarter shipment growth 10

Arctic star solar PV network news: Japan PV power Association (JPEA) November 24 announced has 2016 7 ~ September Japan solar Board domestic shipping volume statistics value: residential with battery Board of shipping volume for 308MW (for last year earlier of 84%), 500kW following power station of shipping volume for 404MW (for last year earlier of 74%), are for continued reduced trend, but to 500kW above power station of shipping volume reached 953MW, for last year earlier of 110%.


Japan above 500kW solar panels in the third quarter shipment growth 10%

JPEA released each quarter panels Japan domestic shipments. Means that the coverage is reduced (in kW)

(Source: Nikkei BP society according to data released JPEA)

From this, residential scale of medium and low voltage-grid uses less than 1MW PV tended to reduce, above 1MW the million-watt PV demand trend is strengthening. Their background is in a fixed price system (FIT) the beginning of certification in the construction of large projects in the last. To HV and UHV projects as the main wire manufacturers, demand is still strong and will continue to remain strong in the coming years.

JPEA Japan shipment statistics, means that the coverage of the survey reduced. 2015 JPEA Japan statistical value of domestic shipments of panels for 7863MW (7.863GW), and economy, trade and industry announced that year import volume reached 9765MW (9.765GW). Because of the economy, trade and industry statistics based on the grid-connected power output, so if the output power of the set of grid-connected solar panels with more than stow parts, panel shipments for the year 2015 11GW views more persuasive.

JPEA Japan statistical coverage of domestic shipments of panels decreased, because is not a survey of medium-scale overseas manufacturers to Japan panels that supplies increased. From all kinds of statistical data, estimated JPEA statistics coverage dropped to 70%-80% per cent.

More large projects, overseas manufacturers share the more increase year by year. Therefore, JPEA 2016 7 released the September shipments of statistical values above 500kW 110% than actual million PV market could be bigger.

Original title: 500kW and above trend firm, JPEA panels shipments statistics for growth 10%

Polaris solar network on December 8 2016 news review

Polaris solar PV net news: Polaris solar PV NET summary highlights December 8, 2016 China PV installed capacity continues to lead the world, “Thirteen-Five” China PV Market Outlook, welcoming new round of electricity price cut its 2017 PV installing the tide? And so on, as follows:

2016 China PV installed capacity to continue leading the global

“Thirteen-Five” China’s PV Market Outlook

Welcoming new round of electricity price cut its 2017 PV installing the tide?

2017 single and multi crystalline market or will be changed to 4:6?

Two choices of energy transformation of China will be which one to choose?

Acceptance of fengyang, Anhui poor household PV Awards supplement publicity (the fourth)

May-July, Gansu power grid “two rules” evaluation compensation (PV)

SunPower to deal with winter layoffs 25%

EU to renewable energy by 2030 half

By 2030 the country of Myanmar will be powered by solar energy

American scientist: solar panels make green more energy-efficient

Inner Mongolia bayannaoer PV industry combined with the facilities of agriculture and animal husbandry problems and suggestions on development

Marching to the edge of space: the SolarStratos open stratospheric aircraft and hangars (photos)