Polaris solar PV net news: a Northwest Plateau of photovoltaic power stations for poverty alleviation situation shows that the policies aimed at benefiting 2 million poor families, faced a number of challenges in the actual operation.
Wooden beach 10 megawatts of photovoltaic power station projects for poverty alleviation, 471 counties nationwide roll out gradually “PV poverty” project. Photograph: Feng Hao
Average more than 3000 meters above sea level in Qinghai is a Highland provinces in Northwestern China, has an area of nearly three large, population of less than Britain’s one-tenth. With a total investment of around 30 billion scale photovoltaic projects for poverty alleviation in China, vast plateau meadows, in addition to the herdsmen’s tents, are seeing their big shiny photovoltaic panels.
In GUINAN County, wooden beach 10 megawatts of photovoltaic power plant construction projects for poverty alleviation, project has come to an end. Is work of master Zhu said: “lightning protection system, confirm the security check in the morning, there should not be many days to the Internet generation. ”
However China dialogue November survey found that combination of photovoltaic power generation and poverty alleviation, also faces a lot of uncertainty at the practical level.
“Flexible interpretation” of central policy
April 2015 in 471 counties gradually spread out of the country “PV poverty alleviation” projects, the principle is very simple: Government funding to help 2 million poor families to build distributed photovoltaic devices, issued except for personal use, can also be sold to the grid, to achieve increased income.
But Beijing’s policy came to more than 1300 square kilometers, Qinghai, it becomes less easy.
As early as two months before the country’s policy, decided in the 8 counties of the province, Qinghai 30 poor villages develop photovoltaic pilot project for poverty alleviation. Qinghai do have favorable conditions for the development of photovoltaic. On one hand, relatively thin atmosphere on the plateau and high daylight transmittance, combined with the arid climate, rainfall, solar energy resources are very abundant. Meanwhile, Qinghai has three large, a large number of desertified land suitable for laying of photovoltaic panels. Reuse of abandoned pastures to develop clean energy, it sounds too.
Qinghai province in 2015 according to the photovoltaic pilot project for poverty alleviation programme, the province plans to use 150 MW photovoltaic project supporting poor 8333 for poverty alleviation. Generation of photovoltaic power plant proceeds deducted is not exempt from tax, paid to the poor.
Follow the plan on paper, GUINAN County – one of the Lonely Planet travel guide as “transportation”, “rarely welcome visitors”, the vast majority of the population for Tibetan counties, was selected as the wooden beach 10 megawatts of photovoltaic power station project partners for poverty alleviation. According to the plan, after the project is completed, 556 households, poor households can enjoy the PV power plant proceeds for poverty alleviation, per household income-generating 4000 Yuan per year.
But China dialogue found that the policies were another power plant “reading”. Power plant employee master Chu told reporters that the plant directly to policy 4000 Yuan per household per year from electricity sales income to the families, the return of all remaining vested in the power plant.
“4000 Yuan subsidy per household had once issued to herdsmen”, Zhu said, “is out of the money. ”
However, the reporter visited local herdsmen said, and heard it from Enterprise subsidies. In fact, more than one herdsman told reporters that they thought was this power station for “West to East” was built. To Helping the Needy, the objectives of the project are understood by local herdsmen to ease the pressures of electricity economically developed areas in the East.
Participating companies at risk
However, enterprises can benefit from this model is equally doubtful. ATD 4000 Yuan subsidy per year per household, this means that the plant annually needs to be fixed to 556 families involved in poverty alleviation projects totaling up to 2.22 million poor benefit, PV power station project construction, maintenance of personnel services and the later, baffling expenditures, compared to power this source of income.
Return is not necessarily guaranteed. As with commercial PV, PV project price is also not enough to cover the high expenses depend on national and local renewable energy subsidies in order to turn a profit. However, renewable energy subsidies granted time to at present, PV industry has become the norm, two or three years in arrears fairly normal.
In addition, the industry reduced the benchmark price of new energy is an inevitable trend. In November 2016, State grid electric river ice, Deputy General Manager of the company said that by 2024, China or cancel new energy new power subsidies.
All enterprises involved in the PV area of poverty reduction to revenue pressures caused by these two issues. Chinese solar PV projects, Wang Fei, head of the group told reporters that the enterprise is not solely for the public interest organizations, logic was simple, first of all to profit.
Obtained from the poverty alleviation programme of local Government much practical benefit, equally bad to say. Yi West Village has been built in PV power plant will not significantly drive the local economy, because solar power as a clean energy project also enjoy the local income tax “three against three reductions” (three years exemption and three-year reduction) offers 10-megawatt photovoltaic power plant covers an area of more than 380 acres, taking up over a period of 25 years, but will not generate sufficient tax revenue to local governments.
In addition, the construction of power station is almost entirely foreign temporary workers, small-scale plant conservation after the grid only takes less than 10 employees, cannot stimulate local employment.
More serious is that wooden beach PV may not even have the opportunity to face these problems. Has the basic completion of the power station, the planned September 30, 2016 put into operation generating, however, found in November, visits China dialogue, the grid-connected power station had not been achieved.
In fact, the weak market in recent years to dissolve, new energy up wind, abandon light phenomenon was repeated by the media. Circular economy of China renewable energy industries Association policy advisory director Peng Peng said, “now leave power of wind, abandoned the high proportion of … … Have to admit now that the electricity market at the stage of an oversupply of electricity market have decreased levels of various forms of energy to dissolve. “
According to the current power supply and demand situation and trend, national grid electricity trading center in the Northwest is expected in 2017 situation of oversupply of electricity will continue in the Northwest end of 2017, the total generating capacity of Northwest power grid, renewable energy generation capacity, new energy capacity will exceed the maximum load, when surplus electricity is about 150 billion-kilowatt for the year, nearly half of Britain a year in electricity.
Experts say large-scale photovoltaic projects, or even worsen the already serious problem of peak load, resulting in abandoned.
Qinghai has started to study the issue of the solution. November 2016, the national grid electric company, Qinghai province, China electric power Research Institute and other research institutes in Beijing, signed an agreement, agreement of cooperation to overcome PV absorptive, delivery, peak and other challenges.
PV development in poor counties faced with knowledge and information gaps. Poor areas are often located in remote, education level, outside the generally less accepting of new technology city residents, how to make solar power really understood, accepted by locals, and eventually used effectively in GUINAN County of the Tibetan population is over 90% are also a problem.
Of grassland and depend on each other, the herders of sheep and yak as a main source of income, for the perception of the environment is sensitive. Norbu’s teenage daughter Zhuo Ma saying, “don’t know behind the electric battery will destroy our pastures.” Solar panels is generally 10 cell 2 will need to be replaced.
Emergence was born in concentration photovoltaic panels on the Meadow, herders in addition to worry that they will occupy the land can be used for grazing, curious about this great big shining equipment will also increase local temperatures.
Tibetan guide said with a smile, the villagers ‘ concerns may be no scientific evidence, nomads but no one to explain in what way these panels in power generation, electricity generated to be used where, and what are the potential environmental effects of the project.
As the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River source in Qinghai province, a fragile ecological environment and ecological restoration in the central to the provincial government’s policy had been emphasized. “Like eye protection, protection of the ecological environment”, “treated like life environment” and “guanghui is gold and silver” propaganda signs along the Highway can be seen everywhere. But a combination of clean energy and poverty alleviation, seemed most friendly harmless policy, have not been helped to fully understand, say that it is a pity.
GUINAN PV poverty story has only just begun, and involved in PV from the same message coming from the poor Eastern Province of Anhui, has adopted this policy in different regions encounter challenges during the landing. In mountain area in Anhui Province, for example, some too old and poor housing conditions is simply not equipped to install photovoltaic panels, and the absorptive capacity of local power network of distributed PV is a cause for concern.
Too many stakeholders involved, greatly influenced by energy markets and energy policy solar poverty alleviation, has just begun, its complexity have been quick to appear. However, Global Institute for energy and the environment and climate change project manager Yu Qingchan tell China dialogue, for its environmental and social benefits and win-win potential, such projects should also receive more attention.
Original title: PV poor altitude variations