Polaris solar PV net news: an introduction
2012 solar promulgated by the National Energy Board “Twelve-Five” plan put forward: by the end of 2015, China completed the total installed capacity of solar thermal power 1 million-kilowatt. But now there seems to be little hope of achieving this goal. In 2011, Datang renewable energy to bid 0.9399 Yuan per kilowatt hour of electricity price internally first solar-thermal power generation concession project, bid low item price profit cannot be guaranteed, resulting in repeated delays in projects. National thermal power generation related to light delayed introduction of the policy, but also is the direct cause of the slow progress in solar-thermal power generation in China. 2014, the National Energy Board, electricity planning and Design Institute, and other related issues in the construction of solar thermal power generation demonstration project February 18 organized a “solar-thermal power generation demonstration project price policy forum”, April 29, organized a “solar-thermal power generation demonstration project technical requirements and apply for a draft outline of the report” seminar. Indications, and may also publish relevant encouraging policies for solar thermal power generation in the second half, and identified a number of solar-thermal power generation demonstration projects, commercialization of solar-thermal power generation prelude development will soon begin. Light thermal power development in this paper a good of the United States, and Spain and other State policies introduced and analyzed.
Second, the overall development status
At present, conventional renewable hydropower, solar power, wind power and other power generation technologies have seasonal, intermittent, stability issues. Solar thermal power generation and storage system or combination of thermal power, enables continuous stable power generation, with adjustability, ease of incorporation, and less impact on the environment throughout the life cycle. Reactive power compensation, light and heat without electricity and high quality. Solar-thermal power development pace over the past decade, particularly in the rich solar energy resources of the United States, and Spain, both in technical as well as commercial processes are at the global forefront. Renewable energy policy network released a status report on global renewable energy in 2014, optical research development of thermal power generation and analysis. Reports by the end of 2013, the global solar thermal power achieved already in production capacity compared with 2012, added nearly 900,000-kilowatt, representing an increase of 36%, solar-thermal electricity generation have been produced for total installed capacity of more than 3.4 million-kilowatt. Decade in the production of solar-thermal power installed capacity increased by nearly 10 times. From 2008 until the end of 2013, at the end of 5 years, the global solar-thermal power installed capacity annual growth at around 50%.
Three, typical national policy analysis of solar thermal power generation
Solar thermal power generation renewable energy policies including feed-in tariff, quota systems, net metering, supports the policy of finance and taxation, as well as green electricity prices, which feed-in tariff and quotas on the most common. Mechanism of electricity price (FIT), that is, Government mandated in power grid enterprises according to a certain price within a certain period to buy renewable electricity within the network coverage. Electricity price form usually consists of a fixed price and floating price. Spain was the first to use FIT subsidy mechanism to promote the development of solar-thermal power generation industry countries. PPA power purchase agreement, which defines the power company (usually for public institutions) and at what price, and rule acquisition of renewable electricity generation. As the world’s second in the total installed capacity of solar thermal power station United States, most solar-thermal power plant and power grid Corporation signed a long-term power purchase agreement (PPA). United States building the first largest SEGS power plants the trough solar thermal power station is the local power grid Corporation signed a 30-year long-term power purchase agreements, tariff 13~14 cents per kWh. World’s largest power station – 392,000 kW installed capacity United States Ivanpah solar-thermal power station and Pacific gas and electric company (PG&E), and Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has signed a 25-year PPA power purchase agreement, 1th 126,000 kW power station and 3rd 133,000 kilowatts of power station the power acquired by PG&E, 2nd 133,000 kilowatts of power stations generate electricity acquired by SCE.
Spain according to a data grid operator REE:
2013 solar-thermal power generation to meet the 1.8% of the country’s total electricity needs. 2014 years ago 4 months, Spain 1.6% of solar-thermal power to meet the country’s electricity needs, in May, Spain solar-thermal power is 3.7% to meet the country’s power needs. Spain 2013 solar-thermal power installed capacity of 350,000 kW, and growth of 18%, until the end of 2013 have been produced for total installed capacity reached 2.3 million-kilowatt, ranks first in the world. Spain is building the world’s first continuous 24-hour continuous power Gemasolar solar-thermal power station, configure up to 15 hours of thermal energy storage systems. This is far beyond the photovoltaic power generation.
1. pricing policy
Spain in solar-thermal power generation policy mainly through FIT the subsidy mechanism, mainly in two kinds of pricing methods, you can choose:
(1) fixed-price: € 0.27/kWh in the first 25 years, EUR 0.22/kWh after 25 years (661/Royal Act No. 2007).
(2) adjusting electricity prices: normal price + additional subsidies (maximum 0.3673 euros per kilowatt hour, minimum of not less than EUR 0.2712/kWh (661/Royal Act No. 2007).
(3) Royal Bill and six hundred and sixty one-two thousand nineths the above policy was revised, fixed-price: € 0.28/kWh during the 25 years before, after 25 years of 0.23 euros/kWh; adjustable price: regular price + additional subsidies (maximum of EUR 0.36 per kilowatt hour, minimum of not less than 0.26 EUR/kWh).
(4) in 2012, removal of price subsidies for new solar thermal power plants, auxiliary gas turbine parts for existing power stations also eliminate price subsidies while demanding a 7% energy tax.
2. policy analysis
Spain was the first to use FIT subsidy mechanism to promote the development of solar-thermal power industry States, 2002 solar-thermal power generation under electricity price subsidies for 0.12 €/kWh in 2007, and this limit is raised to approximately 0.27 EUR/kWh. Thanks to the FIT subsidy policy implemented, solar-thermal power generation projects developed in Spain became significantly profitable renewable energy projects, financing and deploying rapid realization of power plant shortly Spain solar-thermal power installed capacity access to substantial increase in leaps, the total installed capacity has long occupied the world’s first. However in recent years Spain has been evident – some time ago announced the construction of solar thermal power station was discontinued. Such as 50,000-kilowatt, Andasol4, solar thermal power plants, Bogaris two 50,000-kilowatt power station, there are 4 approximately 200,000-kilowatt of solar thermal power project. Because national financial crises caused by FIT subsidies, forcing Spain in 2012 the Government pulled the plug on a new electricity price subsidies for solar thermal power station, auxiliary gas turbine parts for existing power stations also eliminate price subsidies, and 7% energy tax levy.
Defects fixed FIT higher subsidy mechanism is to promote the long-term development of solar-thermal power generation technology and falling costs, because if yields on existing technology can guarantee significant cases, developers are not actively to the promotion of technological innovation. Spain failed to properly FIT subsidy mechanisms to guide the industry to more low cost development in late 2012 Spain Government was forced by the financial crisis may FIT end policy mechanism. Recently Spain Government subsidies announced or will adopt a new mechanism and FIT policy will be implemented retroactively replace, specifically set up solar-thermal power project rate of return of approximately 7.4%, 7.5% slightly lower than the Government’s original proposal. But the policy has not yet been finalized.
(B) United States
United States is the first country to building solar thermal power plants, as early as in the early 1980 of the 20th century, Luz company developed the key components of the trough solar thermal power systems and has been tested. Then in 8 years from 1983 to 1991, Luz company in the United States is being built in the Mojave Desert, California 9 trough solar thermal power plants were SEGSI~SEGSIX, with a total installed capacity of 353,800 kW, into California Edison grid operations so far, ample evidence of solar-thermal power whether it is commercial or technically feasible. As the world’s largest solar thermal plant Ivanpah plant official commissioning, at the end of March 2014, and United States have been produced for solar-thermal power total installed capacity reached 1.435 million kW, ranking second in the world. United States renewable energy consulting firm BernardChabot has released an updated report on the analysis of California’s renewable energy, reports indicate May 2014, solar-thermal power generation to meet the electricity demand in California 0.6%.
1. pricing policy
United States special in solar-thermal power generation policy, without using the project tender for developing solar thermal power project, nor as Spain has a clear unified price incentives, but by financing loan guarantee system of thermal power station to light, the Federal investment tax credit (ITC) and renewable energy sources quota system policy. United States federal investment tax credits for solar energy power station construction costs for tax breaks of up to 30%, and plans are valid for 8 years, until the end of 2016 to expire.
2. policy analysis
To date, United States Department of energy’s loan guarantee program supported a total of 5 solar-thermal power generation projects, the total support amount to 5.835 billion dollars, total support reached 1.282 million kW of installed capacity. Solana trough plant Ivanpah Tower plant obtained United States DOE 1.446 billion-dollar and 1.6 billion-dollar loan guarantee. These loan guarantee schemes for further large-scale solar-thermal power projects of great significance to establish successful financing case. Loan guarantee scheme to reduce investment risk, to complete the project, and can accelerate the commercialization of emerging technologies as soon as possible into the process. But want to get loan guarantees to support difficult, only a small amount is of great significance to obtain loan guarantees to support. While there are also unable to recover the debt risk of the loan guarantee scheme, innovation 2011 PV company Solyndra’s bankruptcy led to United States Department of more than 500 million US dollars debt cannot be recovered, resulting in a renewable energy project loan guarantees to support planned for the year was discontinued. 30% the ITC investment tax credit policy is about to expire in 2016, which will be in full swing of the United States the development of solar-thermal power generation industry brings uncertainty.
IV, analysis of solar-thermal power generation policy in China
And abroad compared to, although lack effective of incentive policy, China of light hot power market yet started, and investment prospects not is clear, however in national development emerging strategic industry of framework Xia, with can renewable energy quota business of implementation, several big power group and the number a private enterprise has began layout, number a dozens of MW level of commercialization light hot power project in Northwest, and Southwest have established. At present, basic solar thermal power can produce major equipment, some of the parts with the commercial production conditions, solar thermal power industry chain has taken initial shape. Ministry of national development and Reform Commission, the National Energy Board and the national science and technology continued interest and support for solar thermal power project. In 2006 issued by the Ministry of science and technology implementation of the outline of the national medium-and long-term program for scientific and technological development (2006-2020), 2007, issued by the national development and Reform Commission and the renewable energy medium-and long-term development plan 2011 issued by the National Energy Board the national energy technology “Twelve-Five” are explicitly listed as solar thermal power in the planning of focus and priority development direction. But the commercialization of solar-thermal power generation in China is lagging behind. At present, the completion of the total installed capacity of only about a dozen MW, plus not 100,000-kilowatt under construction, solar thermal power is far from meeting the “Twelve-Five” plan called 1 million-kilowatt. The reason, can be attributed to: ① price delay introduction of the policy, no guarantee of return on investment, not real deepening; II the major central SOEs to first occupy the resources prior to the outbreak of solar-thermal power generation market ③ the project had encountered technical difficulties such as much larger plan conceived at the beginning of, it is difficult to advance as expected.
In terms of solar-thermal power generation policy should reflect United States, and Spain, and India, such as solar-thermal power generation policy lessons, Spain FIT pricing policy and United States energy investment tax credits, loan guarantees and other policies should combine effective while avoiding India upper limit is set too low electricity prices caused by competition, which can help to promote the development of solar-thermal power generation to a greater extent. So don’t just choose one way, FIT and loan guarantees are good means of promoting the development of solar-thermal power generation. Loan guarantees can promote better project started quickly, can FIT on commissioning ensure the project rate of return. But the FIT should be set at a reasonable standard, you need to consider long-term development objectives, in line with market expectations and guide its development towards a better direction. Policy you will need to carefully assess the riskiness of the project loan guarantees to avoid similar United States DOE not recovered debts risk.
Since the 80 ‘s of last century the world’s first solar-thermal power station United States SEGS power plants put into operation began, solar-thermal power generation has been more than 30 years of development, technology still has great innovations to optimize space, LCOE (cost per kilowatt-hour) also have significantly declined. Solar thermal power generation as a policy-oriented industry, should be based on China’s reality, localization policy of developing solar thermal power, solar-thermal power generation industry of China’s long-term development is undoubtedly a decisive role.
Original title: analysis of situation of solar thermal power generation policy at home and abroad