Polaris solar PV net news: in recent years, the main export markets in Europe and America “anti-dumping, anti-subsidy” (hereinafter “double reverse”) measures, our PV trade prospects grim. To promote PV as a development of internationally competitive emerging industries of strategic importance in China so far this year, China has strongly supported the domestic photovoltaic industry by opening up new markets, and new initiatives such as increasing domestic capacity, and gradually realize the industry recovery. Premier Li keqiang pointed out, “China’s international competitive advantages of PV is a strategic emerging industries. Any industry, business, to maintain world leadership will not be easy. “Therefore, China PV industry difficulties remains serious, the Department should make full use of existing policies to support trade development of China PV.
First, development status of PV industry in China
(A) countries as internationally competitive advantages of strategic industries to promote it. As global environmental concerns and the increasing consumption of traditional energy sources, most countries of the world and new development of photovoltaic energy industry as stimulating growth, expanding employment, strategic industry seize future opportunities, developing photovoltaic industry. PV industry has always attached importance to the development of the State Council, in July 2012, the State Council issued the “Twelve-Five” of strategic industries development plan (Live Nation surveyed 2012, 28th), clearly accelerate the development of energy-saving, environmental protection, new energy, new-generation information technology 7 strategic emerging industries. In July 2013, the State Department official issued the opinions on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry to standardize the PV industry development and expansion of domestic markets, promote industrial restructuring and upgrading work does and manpower deployment. Our PV industry “Twelve-Five” programme, solar PV power target will be increased from 10GW-15GW, laid the Foundation for rapid development of PV industry in China.
(B) industrial development on the whole fluctuation trend. Development of PV industry in China has undergone rapid development, limited and gradual warming of three stages of development. 2009-2011 is China’s PV industry rapid development stage, late 2011 PV number almost 1000, PV module production capacity close to 40GW. PV industry and gradually expand the scale and degree of internationalization is growing. Industrial development is facing a supply and demand imbalance, the increasingly fierce competition in the industry, especially in Europe and “double back” policy, 2012 solar industry-wide losses. In order to encourage the development of photovoltaic industry, the State issued a series of supportive policies, in 2013, the industry and the overall situation stabilized, domestic PV market has steadily increased. In May 2013, Mr LI’s first visit European good offices central PV question, as negotiating content protection and the development of PV industry in China, and achieved success. At this point, PV power investment boom all over again, particularly in the West of PV power station construction accelerated, driving increase in shipments of PV modules, silicon vendor, service provider and product gross margin also improved, becoming the domestic photovoltaic industry, “pick up” one of the main reasons. 2014 years ago 5 months, PV product exports were 7 billion US dollars, an increase of 16%.
Second, the difficulties faced by the domestic photovoltaic industry development
(A) the US and Europe on photovoltaic products exports to China “double reverse” emerging markets open up difficult. In October 2012, the United States decided for photovoltaic cells and modules imported from China to impose anti-dumping, countervailing duties, anti-dumping duty rate for 18.32-249.96%, countervailing duty of 14.78%-15.97%, later in the form of price undertakings in Europe, restrictions on exports of photovoltaic products. July 2014, the WTO ruled that United States violations, but in June and July of this year, United States started again, “double reverse” investigation, tentative judgment on China’s exports to the United States imposed countervailing duties of 18.56%-35.21% solar products; of crystalline silicon photovoltaic products imported from China, the dumping margin is 26.33%-165.04%. The United States and Europe, “double reverse” makes China’s photovoltaic products are the main export markets have again been cold, foreign markets such as the European market was shrinking, and on China’s PV industry has “limit, limit” constraints, sharp drop in export prices. Analysts believe that the United States to China a new round of “double reverse” is expected to be the $ 203 billion impact on photovoltaic products imported from China. In addition, Australia, and India also plan for photovoltaic products in China to carry out anti-dumping, and in South America and other emerging markets in developing effectiveness has yet to be felt, leading domestic over-capacity, corporate debt ratio improved once in an industry-wide loss of position.
(B) the PV industry will also depend on international markets in the short term. Major export markets such as the US and Europe after exports, PV enterprises turned to the domestic market, expanding the sales outlet, excess capacity, but its capacity is still unable to effectively digest their excess capacity. According to statistics, in 2013 about 26GW PV module production in our country, only domestic capacity to 11GW, about 60% ‘s capacity must be turned to exports. In the case of rising international trade friction, PV manufacturers are actively seeking other breakthrough, strive to become “friends” to “partner”.
(C) less solar high-value links. PV industry chain can be divided into “the purification of silicon, wafer, solar cell production and module packaging” four links, of which Silicon purification is the core technology of the industry chain link material, have the highest profit. In General, the Silicon refining gross margin up to 80%, wafer production is about 25%, and the production of solar cells and photovoltaic module packaging profits were 18% and 5% respectively, and the whole industry chain profit an inverted triangle. Chinese PV companies mostly in the low profit of the PV module links, an intensely competitive market; mainly Silicon raw materials are imported from abroad, and more than 60% markets abroad, PV industry development is not balanced.
Figure 1: PV industry chain profit histogram
Crystalline silicon solar cell technology is mature, low threshold, short construction periods, easy to form scale economy, but as the main raw material polysilicon amorphous silicon solar cell because of the large initial investment (1000 tons and 700 million), a long construction period (2 years), high technical threshold, its growth rate is more difficult to keep pace with amorphous silicon solar cell development. In previous years to undertake substantial from Taiwan and other countries and regions did not implement the whole industrial chain of processing trade to undertake, effects of PV technology in China. And because polysilicon industry by the State of “double high” requirement for polysilicon in China was dependent on imports of this policy decision is imminent to have changed significantly.
Table 1: 2011-2014 May polycrystalline silicon material
Data sources: customs statistics
From table 1 can see, China polysilicon Silicon material imports to annually 5%-12% around of range growth, goods value declined 26%-52%, is volume increased price reduction of trend; 2011-2013, polysilicon Silicon material price is yearly declined trend, especially 2012 up price declined range larger, must degree Shang description since 2012 yilai abroad to low price sharply to China dumping polysilicon Silicon material.
C, the relevant policy recommendations and measures
In 2015, the new energy mainly as light and water will become the second largest energy supply of coal and electricity, is expected by 2035 will replace the primacy of traditional energy coal and electricity. China PV industry to achieve true development, the transformation of development mode, establish appropriate technical system for industrial development, continuous innovation and development ability. As the entry and exit of the Customs Oversight Department, should give full play to advantage of heating and cooling time enterprises and master data, provide facilitation of customs clearance for the development of photovoltaic industry and put forward policy proposals.
(A) providing efficient and convenient customs clearance facilitation measures. In May this year, the General Administration of Customs issued on several measures to support the steady growth of foreign trade, from “reform, excellent environmental burden reduction, promote industrial upgrading,” 20 in four aspects, such as measures to support the stable development of foreign trade. PV the main raw material polysilicon relies mainly on imports, photovoltaic products rely mainly on the export situation, efficient and convenient customs clearance measures on enterprises ‘ burdens and increasing benefit is significant. Make full use of regional customs integration, paperless clearance of customs cooperation, Customs seized “three ones”, such as customs reform, making good use of facilitation measures such as appointment customs passage and scope of eligible PV enterprises included in the centralized consolidated tax payment, ease the PV business tax burden and its support for China in international play an important role in the new energy market.
(B) making full use of PV industry development of customs tax.
1. encouraging the project policy. According to industry structure adjustment Guide Directory (2011 this) (Amendment) (following referred to “within funding directory”) encourages class of domestic investment project, meet PV industry development of entries main has: “solar power set hot system, and solar PV power system integrated technology development application, and inverse variable control system development manufacturing”, “wind electric and PV power complementary system technology development and application”. On domestic investment project, in approved of project with meeting lines within imports of use equipment, except domestic investment project not duty-free of imports merchandise directory (2012 adjustment) (Department tax sent surveyed 2012 Max No. 493,) and imports not duty-free of major equipment and products directory (fiscal tariff surveyed 2014 Max 2nd,) by column merchandise outside, enjoy are exempt from imports tariff of offers policy.
According to foreign investment industry Guide Directory (2011 Amendment) (following referred to “foreign directory”) encourages class of foreign investment project, meet PV industry development of entries main has: “solar production dedicated equipment manufacturing”, “new energy power equipment or key equipment manufacturing: PV power, and geothermal power, and tidal power, and wave power, and garbage power, and biogas power, and 2.5 MW and the above wind power equipment”, “new energy station (including solar, and wind, and geothermal energy, and tidal can, and Wave energy, biomass, etc) construction and operation “. For foreign-invested projects, in addition to the list of foreign-invested projects duty-free import of goods (Customs Notice 2008 65th) and the duty-free import of equipment and products catalogue (fiscal customs surveyed live 2014 2nd) listed commodities, enjoy exemption from import duties, according to levy value added tax on importation.
2. good use of science and technology development policies. According to the General Administration of customs 2007 13th bulletin, to meet the eligibility conditions of research or technology development agencies, in reasonable quantities imported within the country can not production or performance does not meet the needs of scientific and technological development shall be exempted from import tariffs and import-related value-added tax and consumption tax. The policy helps enterprises to increase investment in research and development, import related research laboratory equipment, by strengthening research and technological progress to promote PV industry.
3. it is recommended that “local directory” increase in solar industry polysilicon production equipment items. China poly silicon self-sufficiency rate is still high, polycrystalline silicon technology with advanced international level there is a large gap, United States, and Korea, the European Union and other countries and regions to China poly silicon low-price dumping, causing serious damage to China’s polysilicon industry development. Recommended in the “local directory” increase in solar industry polysilicon production equipment entry, to encourage domestic enterprises to introduce advanced production equipment, improve our polysilicon production technology, improve self-sufficiency rate of polysilicon. When the time allowed, the country refer to the nuclear power industry, specifically formulated to support preferential tax policies for the development of the photovoltaic industry.
(C) taking advantage of customs monitoring and early-warning. Customs import and export trade data can more fast reflect external economic of development status, should full played customs import and export data statistics advantage, strengthened on PV industry import and export material, and equipment, and finished of monitoring warning, through on import and export data of monitoring analysis, real reflect foreign trade situation and problem and the national related policy of implementation effect, for PV industry general planning decision provides auxiliary reference; regularly released PV industry “barometer”, better of reflect PV products of import and export status, For PV manufacturers and adjust development strategies and directions, boot capacity rationally, preventing excess capacity.
(D) supporting national PV industry entry criteria. To increase the photovoltaic industry overall level, preventing the local blind construction, recommends good manufacturing access system, industrial development will be gradually developed, with the focus on integration and optimization of the photovoltaic industry, the implementation of mergers within the industry. In 2013, the opinions on promoting the healthy development of the photovoltaic industry clearly stated to “speed up the merger and reorganization of enterprises, eliminating poor product quality, technological backwardness of production enterprises, fostering a number of strong technology research and development and market competitiveness of enterprises”. Through the coordination of upper, middle and downstream development of the industry, build a photovoltaic industrial chain integration, strict quality control of all production steps, on the entire industrial chain for continuous improvement and optimization of production processes and costs, so that a number of powerful, innovative enterprises to emerge, enhance the competitiveness of PV industry in China. By June 2014, the Ministry has twice published in line with the PV manufacturing industry standard conditions of 134 companies list. These companies in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry on new or renovation and expansion project, will have a certain degree of priority support. For PV industry development situation, customs service for its support in line with the PV manufacturing industry to regulate conditions of enterprises to establish State-level technology center, to enjoy tax preferential policies, improving upstream polysilicon refining technology and to solve the polysilicon link exhaust gas recycling, saving energy and resources.
(E) recommended the establishment of photovoltaic products testing and certification system. According to the experience of developed countries, accelerate the construction of photovoltaic power plant operations, promotion of public utilities projects, industrial projects use photovoltaic product can greatly promote the development of PV industry in the country. But PV product quality must be effectively guaranteed, also continues to strengthen research, speed up the transformation of scientific achievements, and maintain the global competitive advantage of PV industry in China. This requires the establishment of national inspection bodies and certification centre to develop batteries, photovoltaic systems, components, raw materials and other relevant mandatory standards, and strict quality control. Custom equipment needed to support PV product testing center and enjoy preferential policies, as well as in customs and exchange activities of the world advancing China’s exports of photovoltaic products in mutual recognition of regulatory processes.
(Author: Liu Sujing party member and discipline inspection team leader Feng Yunyun Haikou Haikou customs Deputy Commissioner for customs duties guzhencheng Senior Staff Member at the Haikou customs tariff)
Original title: consideration on development of PV industry in support of the Customs and trade