Photovoltaic costs drop luck: perovskite-type solar cells is rising

Polaris solar PV net news: in today’s thin-film solar cells is rising, CIGS thin-film solar cells take up nearly half the page. However, as a member of a family of solar cells, perovskite-type solar cell is slowly emerging. Although solar cells is still in “loom over the wolves” environment, the debates have occurred in crystalline silicon and thin films. Perovskite-type solar cells is still in the “former Tiger after Wolf” crystalline silicon and CIGS films have a place, and in periods of high cost such as amorphous silicon solar cell, which was once seen as “photovoltaic costs drop significantly the mascot of”, there is no denying its technical development trend of no limit.

Perovskite since 2009 began to be used for solar research, and is proven by multiple laboratories and companies around the world. In the five-year study, double perovskite cell efficiency has repeatedly, and has attracted the attention of the industry. Perovskite-type solar cells not only has the characteristics of the first generation of high conversion efficiency of solar cells, there is a third generation solar cells characteristic of thin, flexible, roll to roll production can be used for solution method. Therefore, the perovskite-type solar cells are considered the most promising of “rising star”.

Development of perovskite-type solar cells

Perovskite cell (PVSK) is an organic-inorganic composite type, MAPbX3 as light-absorbing material, with the electron and hole-transport materials for new solar cells. Before the package is only a few microns of thickness, much thinner than traditional films such as amorphous silicon, CIGS solar cells cost only a solar cell module one-third, perovskite-type solar cell industry be named–thin film solar cells.

In the early stages of application materials, perovskite-type solar cell efficiency is very low, only 3.5%. At that time since 2009 Japan scientist TsutomuMiyasaka perovskite materials for dye-sensitized solar cell as a light-absorbing material made since 3.8% photoelectric conversion efficiency, perovskite materials for solar cell efficiency has jumped to 15% by the end of 2013 and the current 19.3%, and are still rising rapidly, are expected to break the 20% mark for the year. It only took 5 years, surpassed many of perovskite materials for solar cells efficiencies of solar cells decades of accumulated growth, this is without precedent, and compelling.

August 2013 at the MIT report, the researchers said perovskite-type solar cell efficiency can be reached from 20% to 25%. But with the gradual deepening of perovskite-type solar cell research, November 11 (Beijing time) United States reports, scientists have found in the new study, based on a new kind of perovskite (catio3) or as raw material for solar cell conversion efficiency of up to 50%, twice times the conversion efficiency of solar cells on the market today can greatly reduce the cost of solar cells. Years when the study was published in the journal nature. Although until now the research laboratory research on institutions or enterprises that had not been the proving, but step by step upward even doubled the conversion efficiency is also approaching its study said.

Perovskite-type thin-film solar cells have very broad prospects for development. At present, the perovskite-type solar cells being studied, based on the existing technology to further reduce costs, improve efficiency and stability, and to promote their industrial and commercial, is the inevitable trend.

Studies labs around the world

Japan shadow Yokohama Tong University

Photoelectric conversion efficiency: 3.8%

Japan shadow Yokohama Tong University Professor, graduate school of Engineering Research Institute Director Gong Banli (TsutomuMiyasaka) by a thin film of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3) as a light absorbing layer used in dye-sensitized solar cells, produced the perovskite-type solar cell. Photoelectric conversion rate at that time was 3.8%. Later researchers have improved the battery converted to over 1 time. Conversion efficiency, but also face a fatal problem, that metal halide perovskite easily hydrolyzed liquid electrolyte in the battery led battery low stability, short life.

University of Oxford

Photoelectric conversion efficiency: 15%

2013 • Si Naisi Henry of the University of Oxford (HenrySnaith) battery of TiO2 use in aluminum (Al2O3) in place, not only became the light absorbing layer perovskite also is transfer charge of semiconductor material. Of the perovskite cell conversion efficiency rose to 15%.

Huazhong University of science and

Photoelectric conversion efficiency: 12.84%

The July 18 issue of Science (Science) magazine publishes the Hust Han Hongwei group relevant mesoscopic perovskite-type solar cell research new printing results.

Drawing on perovskite-type solar cell development, Han Hongwei group by introducing mixed cationic amphiphilic molecules developed perovskite materials (5-AVA) x (MA) (1-x) PbI3 (Pb-amine pentyl amino-acid iodine), and apply it in no hole-transport materials for printing in mesoscopic solar cells. Is characterized by a single conductive substrate coated with titanium dioxide nanocrystals by layer-by-layer printing film, carbon, zirconium oxide insulating layer on electrode layer, then fill perovskite materials. The key technology of mesoscopic solar cells of the low-cost continuous production technology and perfect combination. Results showed that the application of new materials not only received 12.84% of the photoelectric conversion efficiency, and showed good reproducibility and stability of devices. The photoelectric conversion efficiency obtained United States Newport independent photovoltaic lab authorized notary public, currently the international no-hole-transport materials for perovskite high efficiency of solar cells.

Peking University

Photoelectric conversion efficiency: 19.3%

According to Beijing University in September news perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid material records are flushed to the 19.3% (Science magazine), previously verified by the authority of photoelectric conversion efficiency is 17.9%. Recently there is hope to reach the level of 25% of crystalline silicon cells.

Research found, calcium titanium mine type PV material of Crystal morphology on its photoelectric performance of effects vital, Peking University Xiao Li-Xin Professor, and Gong Qihuang academician and Xian traffic University Wu Chaoxin Professor, and Hou Xun academician cooperation, through points step solution into film method on mixed chlorine calcium titanium mine material for optimization, relative Yu a step solution into film method, micro morphology easy control, devices efficiency get great improve, and further research calcium titanium mine film material of into film conditions, achieved on calcium titanium mine film morphology of regulation, Successful preparation of mesoscopic structure of perovskite-type solar cells, solar cells and improve the absorption capacity and charge transport capacity for innovative research groups for perovskite-type battery solved the stability problems, has developed a new hydrophobic organic hole transporting materials to enable the device’s stability has been greatly improved.

Researchers at interface engineering problems in the perovskite-type solar cell using transparent conducting electrode modified by alkali metal salt surface and optimizes the transparent electrode and the activity of perovskite layers of energy coupling between materials and achieve does not depend on the oxide skin layer structure of perovskite-type solar energy, photoelectric conversion efficiency of the device can be reached 15.1%. Results showed that by interface modification works can be in place of the conventional dense oxide thin films and achieve an effective electronic collection, which would help to simplify the preparation of device and properties of perovskite-type solar cells still maintain the devices.

The breakthrough of Chinese enterprises and institutions

Xiamen China Light Power

Photoelectric conversion efficiency: 19.6%

July 2014, the news that Xiamen China Light Co perovskite developed photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells at 19.6%, which goes beyond Europe, Japan, and Korea Institute published similar cell conversion efficiency, as the world’s first. Which is why professional record of our latest product, when the industry’s stability and feasibility of eyes turned to laboratory research, Xiamen China light has silently perovskite-type solar cell placed in the spotlight. Products prove successful, but how the product application and production would be needed to overcome the difficulties.

Qingdao Research Institute of energy

Photoelectric conversion rate: 11.3%

In May 2014, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao Institute of bioenergy and process Center for advanced energy storage technologies (energy storage in Qingdao Institute of industrial technology) Dr Pang Shuping’s team successfully developed a novel perovskite-type solar material (NH2CH=NH2PbI3). The material because of its good thermal stability and photoelectric conversion property, in the field of low-cost flexible solar energy (such as solar greenhouses etc) has broad application prospects.

It is understood that the research group is to further optimize the perovskite materials and devices by reducing the dislocation defects within the crystal lattice, the concentration to enhance carrier diffusion length through grain boundary passivation means, reduce the capture effect of grain boundary defect levels on carriers, which carry out photoelectric conversion efficiency further improved. In the structure of flat batteries, the material 11.3% of photoelectric conversion efficiency has reached the world advanced level of device structure.

Team lead in non-environment-friendly design and preparation of perovskite-type photoelectric conversion materials and devices has made new progress. On this basis, using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology and roll to roll (ROLLTOROLL) technology for preparation of low cost, large-area, flexible, highly efficient solar cells, will gratify and Qingdao in Shandong province’s demand for low-cost flexible solar greenhouses etc.

But after rumors said, property useful perovskite still faces pending breach details, such as its current lower university research laboratories and companies around the world in recent years have been carrying out this process of testing and innovation. Materials science and engineering at Stanford University, Professor Michael ˙ maikeji said: “perovskite-type solar cells before the launch, also needs to address a number of questions, one of which is that calcium titanium ore reserves are not sufficient. “As a result, although the prospect of perovskite-type solar cell is very bright, in practice there is still a long way to explore. Perovskite-type photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells can achieve the desired 50% in the industry? Ability as crystalline silicon solar cells generally widely used? Wait and see.

Original title: photovoltaic costs drop luck: perovskite-type solar cells is rising

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