Polaris solar PV net news: around the world in several large photovoltaic power, the author of the Germany kind of sense of goodwill. Germans gave the author the impression that serious, careful, and most profound is reliable, and almost “Germany produced, will be fine,” feeling. But the PV of this country is also confronted with enormous difficulties, even helpless, said Energy Department Director: currently our biggest problems are caused by PV. How on earth did this happen?
Different from distributed photovoltaic electricity sold in China and Germany distributed PV PV the main thing. Germany to today’s high penetration of photovoltaic development and support of the Government. If it is a small solar system, investors can receive subsidies or low interest loans to local large-scale solar installations are completed by experiments and demonstration projects to support. Germany’s PV subsidy policy development is quite advanced, many countries are in the process of development of photovoltaic to the Scriptures.
Germany solar history
Germany is the first and one of the most actively advocates encourage PV research and application, its photovoltaics research and applications has also been at the forefront of the world. As early as 1990, Germany pioneered the “1000 solar roofs plan” due to the rapid development, in 1993, was later expanded into a “2000 building”, to be completed in 1997 nearly a rooftop photovoltaic system, cumulative installed capacity of 33MW.
On this basis, in 1998 and put forward the “100,000 solar roofs plan”, and at the investment research and construction of photovoltaic modules. In 2000, began to implement the plan, a large number of installed PV systems, the actual capacity of 345MW.
In 2005, Germany solar Association, Western funds and Shell Solar company to build world’s largest solar power station and grid, the project at a cost of 22 million euros. Full set of generators from 33,500 solar panels, covers an area of 21.6h square meters, plant power 5MW, can provide electricity for 1800 families.
In 2006, again, then the world’s largest solar power plant in Germany was officially put into operation in the South, the solar power plant to invest 70 million euros and covers an area of 77h square meters, with a total capacity of 12.4MW, you can meet the electricity demand of 3,500 families.
In January 2000, Germany issued a “network split” matching the renewable energy sources Act, requires grid companies to 40-50 euro cents per kWh for electricity prices ‘ full purchase of photovoltaic power. With this kind of legal protection, users can install photovoltaic power generation through the sale of green power to generate revenue. Germany’s photovoltaic market in the renewable energies Act, driven by healthy and rapid development, making Germany more than Japan to become the world’s largest and fastest-growing markets. Germany’s photovoltaic industry is soon over United States, becoming second only to Japan’s second-largest solar cell producer in the world.
Since Germany launched the renewable energy sources Act, people began to realize that the provisions of many regulations and policies in the electricity price is the most scientific and the most effective improvement measures, and can result in significant social, economic and environmental benefits. Many countries followed Germany implemented a law on renewable energy.
Downhill: PV subsidies cuts
Germany at the time of enactment of the law on renewable energy, solar power and other renewable energy implementation fixed feed-in tariff policy, to promote the rapid development of the domestic PV market; the other at a high economic cost. There are reports, as of 2013, Germany citizens to the renewable surcharges totals of about 317 billion euros. By 2022 to reach 68 billion euros. 2014 year renewable energy surcharge is expected to reach 23 billion euros.
On November 16, 2011, as a new energy subsidies to Germany caused no small burden on public finances, Germany party Vice-President Vicente Fox proposed cutting Germany solar subsidies. 2011 Germany solar PV equipment assembling up to 6500MW, Fox recommends annual subsidies for 500~1000MW new photovoltaic devices. On February 23, 2012, Germany announced a cut in subsidies for solar power. The Government made clear that mandatory subsidy to continue to accelerate the reduction of photovoltaic solar panels, a new round of cuts will last 3 months. Germany’s Environment Minister and economy Minister, also said it will cut electricity price subsidies, small rooftop solar power 20% off, and large power plants will reach 30%.
And another, Forbes stressed that as solar panel prices have fallen at a much faster rate than cuts in government subsidies, the industry’s profits will not be reduced. But Germany instead of government subsidies to the solar industry to benefit Chinese companies, currently Germany equipped with solar panels, only 10% is Germany local products, and the rest mainly from China. Despite the current Government subsidies to the industry as much as 7 billion euros, Solarworld, Germany solar companies have faced losses because of competition from Asia.
Cutting decisions led to Germany the photovoltaic sector held large-scale demonstrations in 2012, Germany industry strongly protested the resolution. Due to the new subsidy program to dramatically reduce subsidies, Germany the photovoltaic industry believe could lead to industry in steep decline, so that contractors, component developers, installers and other large area bankruptcy and unemployment.
Although the PV industry strongly protested, but his voice seemingly did not play a significant role. Sustainable PV subsidies cuts in Germany’s PV demand lowered again and again. 2013 Germany PV needs only 3.4GW demand for 9%. Fell to fourth in the world. In the past few years, Germany has been ranked first photovoltaic power, annual installed capacity of about 7.5GW.
Germany over distributed PV installed capacity
With the change in policy, Germany solar superpower title is gone. Germany EuPDResearch published by research institutions of the Germany PV market survey report, 2014 Germany PV installed capacity will shrink again to 2.8GW. And first half of 2014 Germany photovoltaic installation to 1015MW, down 43.5%. If a new Setup project to continue their current rate, Germany will be hard for the Government to complete its renewable energy targets for 2014.
Germany Enterprise lost in transition time
Under the strong support of the renewable energy sources Act, in addition to installing rooftop photovoltaic systems that will benefit citizens outside, as well as Germany’s solar photovoltaic companies. Driven by the favorable policies, Germany zillions solar, and lead the world photovoltaic market until 2008. But it is because of generous government subsidies, Germany structural enterprise failed to timely restructuring to increase competitiveness. In China plummeted under the impact of cheaper rivals and the global price, Germany companies are down.
Germany’s photovoltaic companies, including Bosch and Siemens, or sell or stop the solar business, more was declared bankrupt. Only surviving big companies now only SolarWorld, while other companies still have residual or follow-up enterprises, but they are not independent enterprise. Therefore it can be said that other than SolarWorld, Germany’s solar industry is almost dead. The end of 2013, Germany had 4,179 jobs in solar industry. It’s no wonder Germany Director of energy for the country’s photovoltaic industry is so helpless.
While at the same time, the global photovoltaic industry is thriving. Among them, the 60% of the world’s solar panels from China. China also successfully reverse hit in 2013, the world’s first photovoltaic market. German PV market changing differences inevitably going to sob. Some people will be questioning: Germany will be China’s tomorrow today? I personally believe that, and have different national conditions, the national differences in philosophy, lead to myriads of things result.
Germany energy road of energy transformation in the eyes of the Director
PV subsidies cuts, PV manufacturers are almost completely wiped out, Germany’s PV has thus fallen out? I think not exactly. A trend of development of the photovoltaic industry to subsidize, while Germany’s PV is halfway on this node. Key is the success of transition from Government-subsidised baby grew up. State Energy Director Stefan ˙ Mr Kohler, what he thought about Germany’s energy shift?
Kohler believes that Germany energy transition began earlier this decade, from the renewable energy sources Act (first version) official implementation of start, a history of more than a dozen years. First edition of the renewable energy law of the specific measures is that investors invest in wind power or solar power, are guaranteed full Internet access but also to establish a 20 years of acquisition price. The measure has given investors a security to make people willing to invest in renewable energy. But in can renewable energy fast development of process in the, also appeared has new of problem, is can renewable energy of installed volume has beyond has grid of bear capacity, even beyond has power consumption capacity–in some period within, can renewable energy electricity plus part cannot downtime of power has over has electricity needs, then, on will appeared negative price of problem, both who electricity will passers money to he. This exposure to a multitude of problems in the development of renewable energy.
Germany amendments to the renewable energy law, and requires development of renewable energies must be suitable for grid development progress, that is to say, power grids to what extent that renewable energy can develop to what extent; Conversely, if a regional power grid unable to bear, the development of renewable energy will not be able to. Mr Coller says, energy transformation, they reached a consensus on two points. First, solar and wind power and other renewable energy generation and power system match, taking into account the capacity of electric power system and limiting cases. So, they also to again amendment can renewable energy method, gradually canceled zhiqian of 20 years can renewable energy subsidies electric price not variable of terms, new installed of can renewable energy will not enjoy subsidies price, to and traditional power as to market Shang trading, let investors decided investment proceeds problem, encourages can renewable energy in power trading market in the achieved itself value, so 20 years not variable of electric price policy immediately will ended has.
Second, make sure the renewable energy development and power grid construction, infrastructure construction to match, not just power, regardless of the system, and the need to strengthen our infrastructure, on the other hand to introduce the market mechanism.
Germany renewable high subsidies the times will pass, but the process has been very difficult. There are two sides to the coin, as well as beneficiaries of subsidies on the production of a group of photovoltaic, also has created a large number of interest groups because of costly renewable energy subsidies. Reform is imminent. I expected to see, after rational composed after the transformation, Germany’s PV Beltane. I also believe that Germany’s solar return to glory. Because this is Germany manufacturing!
Original title: solar apocalypse (ii): repeat his brilliant former NO1?