German Director of energy: the biggest problem is caused by PV

Polaris solar PV net news: If Germany put a label, “technology” and “rigorous,” “car land” and “Kingdom of beer” and other words can be selected. If you want to give Germany put a label on energy, “energy transformation,” “solar PV subsidies” and “withdrawal”, “renewable energy” … … In recent years, Germany every time the Act shocked the industry from the energy sector, even more valuable is, Germany with technical excellence and rigorous fashion, get down to the idea of the transformation of energy.

If States, clean and safe energy development path in accordance with the price set the axis in three dimensions, these Nations is evenly distributed over, but Germany has galloped in the direction of clean, safe for a long time, unique. What makes Germany so stick to energy transformation? As the first country energy transformation and new energy development, Germany what to say to China? As a new energy-the fastest growing country, China can learn from Germany to learn from this? Recently, this reporter interviewed Germany energy Director Stefan ˙ Mr Kohler, his energy revolution in China is very concerned, he said: “we certainly hope that China and the US side in the energy axis, safe and clean. ”

Reporter: we know that Germany’s ongoing energy transition, you can roughly describe the transformation in progress?

Kohler: Germany energy transition began earlier this decade, has more than a dozen years old. In 2000, Germany the renewable energy law (first edition) full implementation of this law the most important focus is to encourage renewable energy investments, and provide legal guarantees for investors. Specific measures are, whether investors invest in wind power or solar power, are guaranteed full Internet access but also to establish a 20 years of acquisition price. First edition of the renewable energy sources Act gives investors a security guarantee, make people willing to invest in renewable energy.

After years of development, renewable energy in Germany has developed rapidly, but new problems have emerged, was one of the installed capacity of renewable energy is beyond the reach of grid, even beyond the power consumption–over a certain period, renewable electricity and cannot stop energy has to outpace demand, at this time, the issue came out.

For example, the weekend sunshine well when the wind is also strong, wind power and photovoltaic power generation increased, but Germany’s factories do not work on weekends, PV and wind power in the electricity market trading would not sell out price is negative, say who this time cash to bankroll his electricity, actually is a desert wind up light. Worst day of the year was Germany’s “Pentecost” day, the day trading rate is-20 euros per kilowatt, which exposed many problems in the development of renewable energy.

Reporter: so the new fastest growing energy of Germany, were also the first to suffer a series of problems in the development of new energy sources. The renewable energy law revision is to solve these issues? How to solve?

Kohler: currently our biggest problems are caused by PV. Our policy is photovoltaic power full purchase before, re power subsidy price unchanged for 20 years, although in recent years declining PV feed-in tariff, but operators still have a 6%~8% of profits is good. Germany’s photovoltaic power generation must be online before policy, but if the demand is not so big, there will be negative I have just mentioned, who use electricity, paying to whom. According to the plan, by 2020, Germany’s PV capacity will grow from the current 30 million-kilowatt to 55 million-kilowatt, then need money using more renewable energy, will become an economical energy source.

Another issue exposed is, due to rapid increase in wind power and photovoltaic power generation, leading to Germany traditions generating fewer hours, higher fixed investment and costs rise, some conventional power plants cost so much. Even more serious is because conventional power plants barely profitable, or even losses, so many power plants are required to shut down, but the Government cannot ignore conventional power plants shut down, because no wind and no light is also the time of traditional power generation, they are systematically guaranteed capacity, needs to maintain balance. But executive orders by the Government to maintain its conventional power plants without shutting down unsustainable, over and over, conventional power plants is likely to have the bankruptcy, so Germany currently conventional power generation capacity is also needed assistance.

There is also a problem. Germany’s wind energy resources is separate from the load centers. North wind, the wind-rich, Southern Sun-rich, but the main loads are concentrated in the South. Current Germany wind power is developing rapidly, but the North has failed to eliminate so much wind, wind electricity to the South, it is needed to build power transmission lines. So this amendment to the renewable energy law is the most important requirement for renewable energy development must progress of power grids, renewable energy development and renovation of power grid tied together.

Reporter: what will be bundled with the power grid development? Germany photovoltaic peak generating capacity stood at Germany half of the electricity consumption, such a large-scale renewable energy, Germany power how to match? Voltage, power grid construction scale of what?

Kohler: a new edition of the renewable energies Act requires development of renewable energies must be suitable for grid development progress, that is to say, power grids to what extent that renewable energy can develop to what extent; Conversely, if a regional power grid unable to bear, the development of renewable energy will not be able to.

Germany’s wind power is developing rapidly in the North, due to Germany’s power load are concentrated in the South and Southwest, so I have to build high-voltage transmission lines to convey outside the wind turbine from hundreds of 1000-kilometer. According to our estimates, to eliminate wind power in the North, Germany needs to be built 4,800-kilometer of high voltage transmission lines. Line is not built, electricity is sent out.

Germany building process is complex and lengthy, first submitted plans, and the stakeholder discussions to revise, and finally approved by the Internet surveillance Bureau will be able to build, and eventually folded in the cost of electricity in construction and operation. Currently Germany has approved, will create an 4,800-kilometer high-voltage transmission lines, including 2000duoqianmi road is on AC power lines, including a 380,000 volt Germany construction and operation of high voltage. Currently planning 2,800-kilometer of DC high-voltage circuit, voltage level is still under discussion.

Reporter: as you know, China and Germany, uneven distribution of resources and loads, wind and solar energy resource-rich region from central load up to thousands or even immunized meters. China is building a 1 million volts of ultra high voltage transmission lines, bring Western renewable energy to load centers in the East. Do you think this kind of UHV transmission lines for wind and solar energy in the future, China’s large-scale development is essential? In this regard, what are your suggestions?

Kohler: according to our experience, ultra high voltage power grid for renewable energy development in China is very necessary. Development new energy must to development grid, China of situation also not completely and Germany same, although Germany Northern electricity no southern more, but after all also has part load, can elimination na some wind electric, and on I by knows China of Northwest area load very less, including wind electric and solar zainei of can renewable energy resources is more rich, in Inner Mongolia area now has bear can’t so more of wind. Renewable energy development in China in terms of size and speed, ultra high voltage power grid is not based in China early, but late, new energy development must be synchronized with the ultra high voltage power grid and other infrastructure construction.

Reporter: Germany in the aftermath of nuclear, electricity prices rose significantly, public attitudes?

Kohler: abandoning nuclear power and electricity prices will be more expensive, but this is the aftermath of Fukushima, Germany joint decision of all people. For more secure electricity supply, it is necessary to pay higher electricity, paying any extra costs are recognised by the people. Because the moment to abandon nuclear power, and everyone that will pay the price, but the Germany society finally agreed to absorb the losses.

Reporter: Germany energy transition prior to version 2.0, and version, realizes what to upgrade?

Kohler: energy in transition, we reached a consensus on two points. First, solar and wind power and other renewable energy generation and power system match, taking into account the capacity of electric power system and limiting cases. So, we also to again amendment can renewable energy method, gradually canceled zhiqian of 20 years can renewable energy subsidies electric price not variable of terms, new installed of can renewable energy will not enjoy subsidies price, to and traditional power as to market Shang trading, let investors decided investment proceeds problem, encourages can renewable energy in power trading market in the achieved itself value, so 20 years not variable of electric price policy immediately will ended has.

Second, make sure the renewable energy development and power grid construction, infrastructure construction to match, not just power, regardless of the system, so we need to strengthen our infrastructure, on the other hand to introduce the market mechanism.

Reporter: which means Germany’s renewable energy from “program time” into the “market time”, renewable energy development more rational to be overheated.

Kohler: so to speak, is to amend the law on renewable energy, because we found that in the past a dozen years, we have incentives for renewable energy, over the head, instead of ignoring improvements in energy efficiency, energy saving, infrastructure and other important aspects. We will gradually reduce subsidies for renewable energy and excitement, to strengthen incentives for energy saving and support, but also to focus on solving the problems of power grid and power systems, such as smart electricity problems, such as electric car charging and power matching issues.

Renewable energy high subsidies the times will pass, but the process has been very difficult. Since Germany already has more than 1 million rooftop PV, PV industry as a whole had formed very strong voter influence, they are supporting renewable energy subsidies, so the Government cannot easily change before subsidies. But every coin has two sides, as well as beneficiaries of subsidies on the production of a group of photovoltaic, also has created a large number of interest groups because of costly renewable energy subsidies. Germany the renewable surcharges of up to 20 billion euros a year, these costs must be spread over all electricity users, not willing to pay the high tariffs groups abound. And rising electricity prices not only affect households, Germany’s small and medium enterprises can bear, so these people against high electricity prices, excessive subsidies, calls for a change.

Reporter: China will implement energy revolution, according to you in Germany’s experience during the transition, and what you want to say about China’s energy revolution?

Kohler: I want to say three arguments. First, China PV developed very fast in recent years, especially after distributed PV mass Internet, will exert great pressure on distribution networks. Because the previous distribution network was not built for photovoltaic power, distribution network must be reformed to suit the PV development. Which will lead to a lot of reconstruction without reconstruction, there will be a wide distribution network bottlenecks, PV to the Internet digest.

Second, before distribution network power flow is from top to bottom and now go from bottom to top, so you need new distribution technologies, at the same time in order to solve the congestion problem, we must develop the smart grid. Future power users also have to adapt to the new power characteristics, that is to say, for what users need much electricity before, how much power might be in the future, users use as much electricity as possible, which is power management.

Third, I would like to say that China is to establish a sound, intelligent power systems to achieve renewable energy “shipped out, to dissolve out”, and optimize your system, including storage, power, and the whole process of the entire energy chain, this is the most critical, don’t optimization system, would not accept such a rapid development of renewable energy.

Original title: Director of German energy: the biggest problem is caused by PV

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