SolarCity behind blood

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, the rocket manufacturer Space x to a solar SolarCity a sum of money to help them through. Trader is the biggest shareholder behind the two companies Elon ˙ musk.

2 years ago, solar, SolarCity released $ 214 million of bonds, as a listed company, this issue has been publicly known as “solar bonds”, the biggest seller is the same as Elon ˙ musk name company Space x, it has bought us $ 105 million.

Space x has not been listed. After getting investment earlier this year, valued at $ 12 billion, is one of the world’s most valuable top ten private companies. And it may have started to gain.

To launch a satellite into space after the cost at 60 million dollars, Space x around 70% less than the rival bid. On April 9, the Space x rocket recovered for the first time. After the mature and stable technology, every space mission cost just 20 to 300,000 dollars in fuel costs.

On Wednesday, Space x to defeat the rival ULA to 83 million dollars worth of military orders, for the United States Air Force Launches GPS satellites. And as early as the beginning of 2015, Space x got NASA 4.2 billion dollars worth of orders, send astronauts and supplies for the international space station, now the order is more than $ 10 billion. Meanwhile, the Pentagon also confirmed Space x-military space capabilities.

And Space x the business of Government is different, SolarCity is a home solar power company, its main business is the solar PV system installation, leasing, financing and other support services. You now cannot afford to buy more than $ 20,000 in home solar system, you can choose to spend dozens of dollars to SolarCity on hire.

This money makes SolarCity needs strong cash flows, because it could continue to buy expensive solar equipment, and then gets water out from the monthly rent in return.

And similar to SolarCity and Tesla cars, building super battery factories and the construction vehicle will consume a lot of cost, and the need to sell a one. At present, its global sales are less than half of Faw-VW sales a month.

SolarCity and Tesla’s stock prices and cash flows are not very stable. SpaceX is not the first time to deliver cash to them.

In 2009, musk asked private Space x borrowed 20 million US dollars to finance the financing difficulties of Tesla. 1 year after Tesla’s successful IPO by selling company stock gave the money in the form of SpaceX.

This thing is not over. Tesla ModelS lack of capacity in early 2013, SolarCity rent solar panels when operations are short of money, Space x and extending a helping hand.

Musk has also targeted by Congress. Mr Doug Lamborn, believes that he is likely to take the Government’s money supply their own company.

Musk declined to comment. Meanwhile, spokesman for the Space x, sector is by no means used to balance cash flow comes from government contracts.

However, from last year, the United States lawmakers began asking Congress to amend defense spending bill to prevent abuse of the defense budget.

Original title: Space x into the Thomas g of other blood cells the two companies

Area of solar energy application in modern military new

Polaris solar PV net news: solar power is seen as “inexhaustible” new energy, as energy and power, mankind has explored for nearly 400 years. There are two ways one is solar thermal, photovoltaic conversion. Photoelectric conversion is on the ground or other open area laid solar panels, and through the controller to direct conversion of solar energy into the available AC or DC power, or you can store electricity into the battery recycling. And gradually in transportation, agriculture, water conservancy and starting applications in military, today we have to say is the application of solar energy in the military field.

High-tech era, every transformation, today, is no longer a human wave of military competition, millet plus rifles has been unable to meet the military innovations of the times. Solar power as one of the technological innovations in recent years has been in the military field to emerge and become an important military research and development.

First look at drones with solar power.

Area of solar energy application in modern military new

Solar-powered unmanned aircraft the use of ultra-thin gallium arsenide solar cell devices, gallium arsenide solar cells can generate enough power for the aircraft to fly long distances, negligible solar plane extra weight.

Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles due to battery life is strong, has a very broad application prospects. When earthquakes, floods or forest fires, loss of communication, no machine can replace the interrupted communications, making the affected areas to keep in touch with the outside world.

In addition to the nuclear field, at a predetermined airspace long hovering reconnaissance drones, artillery or aircraft guidance targets.

The technology early on in national military research began to develop, because military experts on mental state clearly first mastering such technology would be preoccupied with. For example, fighter missions in the air, ran out of fuel must be landed to refuel, and solar-powered drone could continue life, sustained combat.

Second, the strategy of solar equipment.

This type of device, our military has, before news reports in our border forces in plateau area already equipped with this type of solar power, the soldier rucksack is equipped with solar power installations during the day to power equipment, patrol stations and other portable communications equipment to meet the demand for electricity.

Area of solar energy application in modern military new

The equipment also joined the walk from ordinary flashlight the size of individual generators, when marching troops drive hangs on the body shake complete power of the generator, ensure electricity for rainy days.

Tactical solar system main advantages are lightweight, easy to carry, no noise, easy to camouflage the advantages of widely favored by the military.

Finally, the idea of solar power generation applications!

United States experts imagine launching a mosaic panels and thousands of thin curved mirror structure of the solar power satellite, the solar panels send energy back to the Earth in space, ground station acquisition before diverting to the user.

Area of solar energy application in modern military new

You know photovoltaic panels, the main material is silicon, but there is a fatal flaw is fragile, so it is difficult to design a rugged, suitable for deployment in the field of solar power generation equipment. In addition, PV solar will have stable enough energy, the Sun will be affected, so that there is intermittent. Combined with high costs also have restrictions on the use of solar power in the military.

For now due to the above mentioned solar PV application reliability and feasibility are not up to the standards required by the military, many technical applications in the design phase, not really being widely used in the military field.

In future studies, we will earnestly study and actively involved in the research and development of new energy technologies through technical innovations to remedy defects of new energy to promote its wide use in military and social life, and contribute to the building of a new era for the country’s power.

Original title: competition in the modern military, offering not only firearms, cannons, and chasing new energy applications!

While supporting three empires musk funding controversy

While supporting three empires musk funding controversy

  SolarCity, Tesla and SpaceX three total $ 50 billion worth of the company, they have a common soul – Thomas g. How to ensure the development of the three companies? Tesla burnt 1.5 billion dollars last year, SpaceX and SolarCity is devouring cash monsters. Thomas g solution to financial difficulties is a little unusual: mortgage equity, loans to banks and loans to buy back shares, buying corporate bonds, used company money to support other enterprise development. This means giving some cause for concern.

  Recently, the Wall Street Journal published an article on financial operation carried out a detailed analysis of the musk, which reads as follows:

  Starting from October 2014, SolarCity trying to attract retail investors to invest in its solar business, through the company’s Web site to issue so-called “solar bonds (solar bonds)”, total has earned 214 million dollars. For now, buying bonds is the largest rocket manufacturer space exploration technologies Corporation (Space Exploration Technologies Inc.), bonds issued $ 105 million last month, SolarCity, space exploration technologies Corporation accounted for $ 90 million. Dolce Gabbana iPhone plus Case

  Billionaire entrepreneur Mr MASKEY said in an interview, buying bonds is a “good investment.” He thinks they understand them better than anyone else. Mr MASKEY is SolarCity’s largest shareholder, is both Chairman of SolarCity and SpaceX CEO.

  Mr MASKEY, 44 years old, he was not afraid to risk, go ahead and establish a unique business empire. He also lead SolarCity and SpaceX and Tesla, the three companies, which total $ 50 billion worth of the company. Thomas g industry because of his change, he said, once the SpaceX successfully launched a rocket to Mars several times in succession, he retired later in life on Mars, musk is no joke, he was serious.

  Mortgage equity loan companies

  All along, the musk are financial support for his own company, help them to develop their business, the technique he used is a bit unconventional.

  Regulatory data shows that in addition to buying bonds, Mr MASKEY also use the line of credit to obtain $ 475 million funding, when SolarCity and Tesla needed financial backing, musk will pay for stock. The line of credit is secured, according to Wednesday’s closing price, Thomas g collateral of SolarCity and Tesla shares worth 2.51 billion dollars.

  Few executives in order to obtain a personal loan mortgage shares, because that would pose a threat to other shareholders, can also lead to clashes between executives ‘ interests and interests of the company. If the share price falls, the borrower may send a margin call notification, forcing executives to sell shares or increase collateral for repayment of the loan.

  Tesla has revealed in a regulatory filing, received notification of margin–loan – it is entirely possible and musk, Tesla says: “notice may result in the company’s share price to fall further. ”

  Last year, Canada specialty Pharma Valeant’s stock price had decreased by 14% in one day, as the company CEO maikeer·piersen (Michael Pearson) received a margin call notification, Pearson by his company holding equity loan of 100 million US dollars. In accordance with the notification requirements, the lender sold 1.3 million shares.

  Financial manipulation controversy

  Some corporate governance experts and analysts said musk with SolarCity and Tesla’s stock as collateral to borrow large amounts of money, which itself has a problem, and now the two companies are already large, publicly traded companies, this issue more.

  Unit Economics LLC, founder and senior analyst neisen·weisi (Nathan Weiss): “as an analyst, if the company or the management entities of direct loans, and with these entities and there is a personal or financial interest, I usually give them bright red. ”

  Mr MASKEY said he has a lot of personal loans and financial operations between SolarCity and SpaceX and Tesla, is questioned about this behavior is “reasonable”. In an interview, he also said: “a couple of times a company’s performance much better than the other company I will borrow some money. “Musk to defend his conduct, he believes this is consistent with his philosophy:” If investors, morally I should put my money. I’m not supposed to tell someone to do something they are not willing to do. ”

  ”Tesla, SolarCity and SpaceX is like a pyramid, if one part of the problem, we don’t want to trigger similar consequences like House of cards collapses, this is the most important. ”

  Musk emphasized personal loans would not threaten shareholder because his personal assets worth more than 10 billion dollars, while loan assets under 5%. These assets do not include SpaceX shares, SpaceX, after all, is not listed. Mr MASKEY also said that if necessary, he would mortgage more of SpaceX and Tesla stock.

  In the interview, Mr MASKEY told the media: “If you do receive a margin call notification, unable to pay the rate almost to zero. ”

While supporting three empires musk funding controversy

  Musk’s stock is worth?

  Recently, Mr MASKEY’s career was in the ascendant, and Bordeaux. Tesla has just released Model 3 electric vehicles, 7 days before 325,000 people book, every book needs to pay a $ 1000 deposit. Since 1925, in addition to the Tesla is not a United States automobile startups succeed.

  On April 8 this year, SpaceX rocket landed in the Atlantic Ocean on a floating platform, this platform is controlled by GPS, landed for the first time in company history. Dolce & Gabbana iPhone 6 Plus Case

  Tesla’s latest proxy statement shows that Thomas g owns 37 million shares of Tesla stock, share 27%, according to Wednesday’s closing price of US $ 9.36 billion. Regulatory data shows otherwise, Thomas g control of the 22% stake in SolarCity, a total of 21.8 million shares, according to Wednesday’s closing price of us $ 726 million.

  Earlier this year, SpaceX won the new round of financing, at the company’s US $ 12 billion. Mr MASKEY SpaceX shares held and not released, Mr MASKEY also declined.

  Mr MASKEY is Tesla’s Chairman and CEO, he did not get paid. Last year, the total pay only $ 37584 musk, in line with California’s minimum wage requirement, but he never received the money. SolarCity, musk’s total compensation of $ 1.2 million, mostly of stock options, granted in stages the next 3 years. SpaceX to his salary of $ 2.4 million, according to insiders, this compensation included $ 38000 sum of wages, rest is stock.

  The attitude of investors: don’t worry

  In February, the ISS QuickScore (owned by Institutional Shareholder Services Department) has published a report, it found in the United States only 13% of the 3,000 largest public company executives or directors of mortgage equity access loan.

  SolarCity and Tesla’s stock is not stable, SolarCity has fallen 35% this year, from the end of December to February, Tesla lost 40%, has since rebounded. Mr MASKEY has indicated to the shareholders, he believed in the idea: the captain was the last to leave the boat. In the interview, Mr MASKEY said he has no intention of selling any of Tesla stock, even adding SpaceX shares as collateral.

  VC firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson (Draper Fisher Jurvetson), founding partner of shidifen·youerweitesong (Stephen Jurvetson), musk’s move and not a cause for concern. Draper Fisher Jurvetson is SpaceX, SolarCity and Tesla’s early investors and a major investor. Youerweitesong think the musk’s “passion is amazing,” he also expressed appreciation for the dedication and foresight of musk. Youerweitesong is a Director of SpaceX and Tesla.

  Musk’s personal loans in line with shareholders ‘ best interests? Directors discussed around this? Youerweitesong responded by saying: “we do not intend to discuss this issue. “He added:” you should see the musk’s stake. “As long as the musk’s stake is less than 5%, there is no need to worry, you only need to concern. Mr MASKEY said he himself had set a 5% line.

  There have been funding crisis

  In 2002, Thomas g selling PayPal shares received $ 165 million Fund, he used the money to support development of SolarCity and SpaceX and Tesla. Right from the beginning, he used a startup money to help another company development.

  By the end of 2008, Tesla appears in the financial crisis, as companies are unable to raise funds on the one hand, there is the new Roadster electric cars because of manufacturing delays. Fortunately, Tesla received $ 40 million in financing at the critical moment, Thomas g pledged $ 20 million of the money was his own.

  Around the same time, SpaceX also because the development of rocket businesses money in an emergency. SpaceX and later United States space agency NASA signed a 1.6 billion dollar contract, things began to improve, SpaceX pledge launch 12 unmanned cargo spacecraft to the international space station.

  In early 2009, the musk from SpaceX borrowed $ 20 million in his own name, he explained that the loan will not be used to finance Tesla.

  Tesla went public in June 2010, musk has sold 1.4 million shares of Tesla stock, received $ 23.8 million, he used the money to pay SpaceX loan interest. Musk stressed that this was the only time he shipped the Tesla stock.

  The beginning of 2013, as Molde s sedan dystocia, Tesla capital close to the red line, when cars due to engine defects and other problems is not making good progress. At the same time, SolarCity for expansion of solar panel lease business needs financial support.

While supporting three empires musk funding controversy

  Loans to buy shares

  In order to resolve the funding dilemma, Thomas g increases the credit limit, for $ 85 million, before, later increased to $ 300 million. Thomas g to provide loans that Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, which declined to comment.

  Regulatory filings also showed that musk 9.5 million shares of Tesla stock as collateral, to increase credit lines, total musk in this part of the stock-holding 29%; used as collateral are not more than 6 million shares of SolarCity stock, which accounted for 29% of personal holdings.

  May 2013 to October 2013, after getting loans with credit lines, Thomas g for taking part of the money to buy 100 million dollars worth of Tesla stock and $ 10 million SolarCity stock, the equivalent of injecting capital into the two companies. SolarCity spokesman said that musk’s investment ratio is not high, because the size of the deal to $ 398 million.

  Analysts say Tesla burn cash reserves of more than US $ 1.5 billion last year. Some analysts worry that the Model x SUV will delay delivery. Due to higher costs, nearly half of SolarCity cut its growth targets, companies rushed down. Investors also worried about SolarCity may not be able to continue to receive subsidies, but this ultimately did not happen. SolarCity spokesman responded that the reduction target because the company will focus on profit.

  Last year, Tesla disclosed that musk would increase lines of credit to $ 475 million. Regulatory information, musk, bought $ 20 million of Tesla stock, $ 17.7 million SolarCity shares. In the interview, Mr MASKEY said buying stocks he and shareholders of the two companies are standing in a line, two facilities are not up to the credit limit of the 65%.

  Buy SolarCity solar bonds

  SpaceX has tried three times to buy SolarCity solar bonds issued by March 2015 invest 90 million dollars in June 2015, spent $ 75 million, last month spent $ 90 million to buy.

Analyst at Axiom capital management in New York gaodeng·yuehanxun (Gordon Johnson) thinks that most retail investors in solar energy have little interest in bonds, they do not want to purchase. SolarCity said bonds attracted investors throughout the United States in all 50 States.

  Last November, SolarCity released 113 million dollars of convertible bonds, musk has an entity to invest $ 10 million to buy. SolarCity CEO lindeng·Lifu (Lyndon Rive) also bought a $ 3 million bond, Riverside, is the cousin of musk. Riverside, said buying bonds is a good investment, he said: “If you look at bonds with 5-year long-term perspective, I think it should return very well. ”

Dolce & Gabbana iPhone 6 Plus Case

  $ 105 million bond issue in March, SolarCity and SpaceX to swallow the $ 90 million. Mr MASKEY said last year, SpaceX has some maturity, SolarCity bonds can be used to replace, SpaceX has about $ 1 billion in cash positions, latest transaction brings about 10% return, return well.

  Musk’s financial manipulation caused the United States Capitol (Capitol Hill) concerns lawmakers worried that federal and SpaceX signed a contract to pay money into the SolarCity. According to people familiar with the matter said, SpaceX rocket project contract from the agent received $ 3.2 billion in capital, legislators want to SpaceX to ensure that the money will not be used for the financing of SolarCity.

  United States Congressman daoge·lanboen (Doug Lamborn) submitted an amendment this week to ban money musk of SpaceX SolarCity bond purchases. Provisions aimed at signalling to Mr MASKEY, told Congressional Republicans to pay close attention to his actions. Lamborn said their move is signalled, not to debate or to take real action. Mr MASKEY declined to comment. SpaceX press spokesman responded that the company’s cash balances are not public funds.

[Article correction]

Collection is the collection of 1542

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Polaris solar PV NET week news highlights 4 25 4 29

Polaris solar PV net news: policy review

1. the European solar grade silicon for Commerce to double the final review on the investigation

A few days ago, Commerce Department trade remedy Investigations Bureau for imports originating in the European Union applicable to solar grade poly silicon countervailing, final review on investigation of anti-dumping measures announcement, the announcement pointed out that, during the final review of anti-dumping investigation period, continuing the application of countervailing and anti-dumping measures, the survey since May 1, 2016 and end on April 30, 2017.

For more details

2. Jiangxi provincial energy Board issued the notice on strengthening management of photovoltaic power generation project

Recently, the Jiangxi provincial energy Board issued the notice on strengthening management of photovoltaic power generation project, the circular clearly stated: the annual allocation has been made plans but does not require the use of products of the project, shall not benefit from the provincial electricity subsidies, but you can enjoy State subsidies.

For more details

3. Tibet interim measures for PV power plant project management

Zhejiang coal alternative assessment methods for renewable energy level of completion

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, the energy Bureau of Zhejiang Province issued the reduction of coal consumption in Zhejiang Province acceptance of alternative management measures, (hereinafter referred to as the methods) by will actively develop renewable, wind power installed capacity by 2017, Zhejiang Province reached 2 million-kilowatt, PV installed capacity of more than 4 million-kilowatt. According to Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Province, issued by the Department of energy’s energy development annual plan and annual plan for the photovoltaic and wind turbine requirements completed annual construction tasks. Score: 10 mark completed annual construction tasks; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 10 percentage points; completed less than 70%-0 mark.

Following is the policy of the original:

The municipal people’s Government:

Agreed to by the provincial government, Zhejiang Province, now the acceptance of coal consumption reduction alternative management measures issued to you, please implement.

Development and Reform Commission of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Province economic and information Committee of Zhejiang Provincial Department of finance

Office of Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial price Bureau

The energy Bureau of Zhejiang Province

The April 20, 2016

Zhejiang Province coal consumption reduction acceptance of alternative management approaches

For full advance clean energy model province construction, strictly implementation coal consumption reduction volume alternative management work responsibility, strengthened supervision management, specification assessment acceptance work, according to national NDRC, six Department door on issued straddling focus area coal consumption reduction volume alternative management provisional approach of notification (sent modified ring funding (2014) No. 2984,) and Zhejiang Province coal consumption reduction volume alternative management work programme (Zhejiang sent modified energy (2015) No. 569,) of about provides, developed this approach.

, The examination purposes

Keep abreast of alternative management work of coal consumption reductions, prompt access to all levels of Government to implement coal consumption reduction alternative management responsibility, sum up experience practices, finding weaknesses in a timely manner, analyze the causes, and suggestions, ensuring that the province’s coal consumption reduction alternative management objectives, tasks, fully implemented, ensuring clean energy pilot project made significant progress.

Second, content and indexes

Coal consumption reduction alternative management in Zhejiang Province, according to the requirements of the programme of work, the examination content, scores and targets set are as follows:

(A) coal consumption reductions (40 points)

1. the total amount control of coal consumption (10 points)

Target: by 2017 all districts and cities where the total coal consumption (except for tracking, coal power plants) in 2012 based on the decline of more than 10%.

Requirements: in accordance with the special scheme for air pollution prevention and control to adjust the energy structure of Zhejiang Province (2014-2017) (Zhejiang Government ban (2014), annex 1, 61st), completed by letter Board issued the annual coal consumption control goals.

Score criteria: annual control of the target period of 10 minutes, did not complete the 0 mark.

2. the phase-out of coal-fired boiler (furnace) furnace (10 points)

Objectives: by the end of 2017, above County urban area in the province in addition to electricity, central heating and a special technology needs, phase-out of coal-fired boilers, kilns, furnaces, gas furnace, and stove; non-restricted fire zones out of 10 tons steam per hour less scattered coal-fired boilers (furnace) furnace.

Requirements: in accordance with the special scheme for air pollution prevention and control to adjust the energy structure of Zhejiang Province (2014-2017) (Zhejiang Government ban (2014), annex 1, 61st), completion of the annual coal-fired boilers, kilns, furnaces, gas furnace, and stove out reconstruction tasks.

Score criteria: City of the province, according to the provincial government ordered the beginning of each coal-fired boilers (kilns) furnace out of reconstruction plan, complete annual phase out renovation period of 10 minutes; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 10 percentage points; complete the tasks below the 0 mark 70% of the year.

3. eliminating backward production capacity (5 points)

Target: by 2017, the total backward cement production capacity of 4.5 million tons capacity 5.86 billion standard bricks, brick and so on.

Requirements: Zhejiang Province, issued in accordance with the Convention on the Elimination of outdated capacity (2013-2017) notice (Zhejiang eliminated (2013), 7th), annual production capacity and phase-out.

Score criteria: industrial transformation and upgrading, according to province, handed down by the Office of the leading group early every year phase-out completed year phase-out period of 5 minutes; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 5 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

4. squeeze excess capacity (5 points)

Goal: to industries such as steel, cement, electrolytic aluminum, plate glass, focusing on through pressure reducing excess capacity, reduce coal.

Requirements: in accordance with the requirements of implementing programmes in Zhejiang province to resolve contradictions of excess capacity, completion of the annual excess industry capacity cuts task.

Score criteria: according to the excess capacity reduction plan issued by the information Commission, 5 mark annual tasks; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 5 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

5. shut down small coal-fired units (5)

Goal: to speed up the closure of province 300,000-kilowatt the following generator pure gel.

Requirements: in accordance with the national action plan for the upgrade and transformation of energy saving of coal-fired units required to complete the annual shutdown tasks.

Score criteria: complete the annual shutdown task 5 mark; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 5 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

6. the implementation of energy-saving (5 points)

Goal: accelerating the Elimination of expiration of service units, medium temperature and medium pressure unit and unit energy consumption excessive emissions; completed 10 steam ton/h coal fired industrial boiler energy efficiency surveys, energy efficiency testing and renovation work.

Requirements: in accordance with the province’s local action plan on upgrading coal-fired combined heat and power industry requirements, completion of the annual energy saving tasks.

Score: 5 mark annual tasks; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 5 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

(B) alternative coal consumption (35 points)

7. to speed up construction of natural gas pipeline network (10 points)

Goals: orderly provincial natural gas “suck” construction complete “County connection” until 2017-building goals.

Requirements: according to province gas “County County pass” special action plans requirements, 2016 built Yong Taiwan temperature, and Jin Liwen, and beilun-big Pavilion, and lanxi extension and river extension; 2017 built Dongyang extension, and Cangnan extension and Zhejiang Shanghai contact line a period; 2016 starts construction Wenzhou LNG station; 2017 starts construction provincial tube network Northwest route, and Zhoushan-Ningbo Harbour pipeline and ninghai-Xiangshan, and Dongyang-panan, and three-shengzhou, and Yueqing-yuhuan, and shangyu-xinchang, and changshan-culture, and Sea-pipeline in xianju.

Standard: according to the provincial government and the Municipal Government signed the “County General” goal responsibility requirements, completion of construction period of 10 minutes; unfinished, completed by multiplied by 10 percentage points; completed less than 70%-0 mark.

8. the safe development of nuclear power (3)

Goal: the end of 2017, the province’s nuclear power installed capacity of more than 9 million-kilowatt.

Requirements: completed in sanmen, a 2017 years, phase three gates in 2016 under construction.

Standard: complete the promote task 3 mark; unfinished, 0 points.

9. the positive developments in renewable energy (10 points)

Target: by 2017, the province’s wind power installed capacity reached 2 million-kilowatt, PV installed capacity of more than 4 million-kilowatt.

Requirements: in accordance with provincial energy Board energy development across the province issued its annual plan and annual plan for the photovoltaic and wind turbine requirements completed annual construction tasks.

Score: 10 mark completed annual construction tasks; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 10 percentage points; completed less than 70%-0 mark.

10. Central heating alternative (8)

Goal: the end of 2017, the province’s hot load of 100 steam tons/h industrial park, full central heating.

Requirements: 2016 end of Qian, Hangzhou, and Ningbo, and jiaxing, and huzhou, and Shaoxing hot load in 100 steam tons/Shi above of industrial park 95% above achieved concentrated heating, Wenzhou, and Taizhou, and Jinhua, and Quzhou, and Lishui, and Zhoushan actual hot load in 100 steam tons/Shi above of industrial park 70% above achieved concentrated heating; 2017 end of Qian, province actual hot load in 100 steam tons/Shi above of industrial park full achieved concentrated heating.

Score criteria: finish promoting goal 8 mark of the year; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 8 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

11. Energy alternatives (4)

Goal: to garment processing, wood products, metal casting and processing, ceramics and other industries, and shopping malls, hospitals, schools, hotels, business offices, focusing on implementation to coal.

Requirements: according to the views on speeding up the implementation of energy alternatives (Zhejiang province by resources (2015) No. 257), completion of the annual electric energy alternative tasks.

Score criteria: alternative Task 4 for complete power; not fully completed, as completed multiplied by 4 percentage points; completed less than 60%-0 mark.

(C) strengthening the management of coal consumption (15 points)

12. strict access to coal projects. (9)

Goal: to access the requirements of strict enforcement of coal consumption.

Requirements: the province’s prohibition of approval 20 tons steam per hour less coal-fired boiler; cities outside the no fire zone in addition to power generation and district heating, against approving coal-fired projects new projects against have owned coal-fired power plant under construction. New coal projects in the energy efficiency rating before the review and the environmental impact assessment, shall be met where the total coal consumption reduction requirements. Coal-fired projects under construction will produce coal consumption to be included in the total coal consumption, where cutbacks are integrated and balanced. New high energy-consuming projects unit of product (output) to reach the international advanced level of energy consumption, energy-using equipment to achieve the level of energy efficiency standards.

Score criteria: access the requirements of strict enforcement of coal consumption meter 9; 1 cases were found not to meet, deducted 3 points, accumulated after deducted 9 points, but upside down 9 points.

13. strengthening policy support (6)

Objective: implement the coal consumption reduction alternative support policy.

Requirements: a serious implementation of the General Office of the provincial government, to strengthen its efforts to promote coal-fired (heavy oil) boilers (furnace) furnace out modification notice requirements, implementation of Pan (furnace) furnace remaking out financial aid, such as coal to gas supply policy.

Criteria: the strict implementation of the policy for coal consumption reduction alternative 6; found 1 items were not implemented, deducted 3 points, added 6 points deducted.

(D) safeguards (10 points)

14. the establishment of organizations (4)

Goal: a healthy organization, responsibilities.

Requirements: build coal consumption reduction alternative management organization coordinating bodies, clear responsibilities and implementation going forward.

Score criteria: calls for the establishment of organizations, responsibility is counted as 4 points, 1 outstanding, including 0.

15. work out the implementation details, preparation of the overall programme (6 points)

Goal: to replace the implementing rules for the management of coal consumption reductions, overall programme, annual work programmes and the self-examination report authoring, content improvement and on time.

Requirements: set district municipal government December 2015 end of Qian prepared completed this regional coal consumption reduction volume alternative General Programme and annual work programme, and reported province Energy Council, and province by letter Board, and province environmental Office record; work programme implementation annual scroll adjustment, annual November end of Qian will work programme adjustment plans reported province coal consumption reduction volume alternative management work joint office; annual May end of Qian, prepared formed Shang annual coal reduction volume alternative self-examination report.

Score criteria: according to the implementing rules for the request to complete, the overall programme, annual work programmes and the self-examination report 6 mark, 1 outstanding, deducted 2 points, added 6 points deducted.

Third, method and program

(A) to reduce consumption of coal districts and cities the acceptance of alternative management, replaced by coal consumption reduction management office organization and implementation of the joint and unified organization and implementation methods.

(B) the examination procedure:

1. before the end of May of each year, all districts and cities prepare annual coal reduction instead of self-examination report on the formation and joint meeting of the provincial coal reduction alternative management office;

2. May-June each year, the provincial Office of the joint unified organization or the sector of the city’s coal consumption reduction alternative management for acceptance. Examination take the briefing, read accounts, field verification, integrated assessment methods.

3, before the end of June each year, districts and cities at the provincial Office of the joint meeting of the examination and evaluation of provincial government, formed the province’s annual self-examination report to society announcements, and submitted to the national development and Reform Commission, the National Energy Board.

Four assessment criteria and rewards and punishments

(A) the examination mark evaluation method, test score results into excellent, qualified, failed three grades.

1. Excellent: examination scores above 85 (85 points);

2. Eligibility: examination score of 60-85 (60 points) between;

3. Failed: examination score below 60.

(B) the sum, coal consumption reduction around the promotion of alternative management practices, unfinished coal consumption reduction instead of annual targets, give notice of criticism, and put their new coal projects. City year reduction alternative tasks that are not completed, it will be included in the next annual examination.

Five, other

(A) in each County (city, district) acceptance of coal consumption reduction alternative management, led by the district municipality in accordance with this approach, and the Union, organization and implementation.

(B) these measures relate to control total coal consumption, coal-fired boilers (kilns) furnace out of reform and eliminate backward production capacity, reduce overcapacity and other special work, its acceptance by the provincial departments as appropriate in accordance with these measures unilaterally.

(C) acceptance as provided herein was not associated with districts and cities, that is not deducted.

(D) the implementation of this approach from the date of issuance.

Schedule: Zhejiang coal consumption reduction alternative management assessment projects scoring list

Zhejiang coal alternative assessment methods for renewable energy level of completion issued under 70% 0 mark

Original title: Zhejiang issued examination of coal consumption reduction alternative management approaches

On six core issues green bonds

Polaris solar PV net news: China on global climate change, energy conservation and emission reduction issues importance of increasing green industrial policy spring constant. In the “Thirteen-Five” plan under the overall layout, green ideas become the keynote of the next five-year development, climate summit in Paris also made green development commitments and clear long-term objectives. Developing green bond markets for the promotion of traditional industry structure upgrading and transformation, developing new green industries is important; but green industries also face financing tight, higher financing costs of the current situation, as new financial instruments to support financing of green industry and green bond development in China to solve the financing difficulty bring a ray of green industry.

Q1 What is the Green bonds?

A: Green bond refers to the raised funds are designed to meet the required conditions of green projects for these projects or refinance debt instruments, the main objective is to promote the sustainable development of the environment. Green projects include but are not limited to: energy saving, resource saving and recycling, pollution control, clean transportation, ecological protection and adaptation to climate change, clean energy and other fields.

Q2 green bond background and current situation of development situation?

A,: Green bonds of rise stems from investors on climate changes and environment problem of continued concern, first by European investment banking (EIB) Yu 2007 first issued, 2012 years Qian green bonds issued subject more to international multilateral financial institutions mainly, 2013 yilai with first only non-financial enterprise green bonds of issued, green bonds market scale quickly expanded, thereafter local government and low rating subject gradually into green bonds market, issued subject constantly expansion, green bonds varieties further rich, Global Green bond market growth, 2015 global bonds issued 232 green bond market, issuance of US $ 41.8 billion.

Judging from the domestic market green bonds started relatively late, but is currently in the stage of rapid development. 2015, the ABC Green $ 1 billion dual currency bonds issued in London, Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, Industrial Bank and the green banks of the issued 38 billion yuan of financial bonds. April 2016, the Concord wind power issued 200 million yuan in the interbank market medium-term notes, complete the first green debt financing of non-financial corporations in the territory tool registration issue.

Who can issue Green bonds Q3?

A: issuance of green bonds mainly follow the principles of project-oriented, not special demands on the qualification of the issuer, the scope of green projects should conform to the Chinese Finance Association professional Committee of green finance publication of the catalogue of green bonds support projects. In inter-bank bond market, according to the people’s bank notice of the issuance of green bonds, green finance issuers, including development banks, policy banks, commercial banks, finance companies and other financial institutions established by law. According to the national development and Reform Commission guidelines on green bonds, encouraged listed companies and their subsidiaries to issue Green bonds support eligible enterprises, green investment funds issuance of green bonds, earmarked for investing in green projects. According to the SSE of the notifications on the pilot green corporate bonds, the issuer is not limited, guided by the management of corporate bonds, raising funds to support the green industry Publisher can apply.

Q4 issuers: why do I have to issue Green bonds?

A: from a guidance policy, issuance of green bonds with multiple offers and convenience. (1) issue. Green bond issue Declaration, established or declared admissible and examine the green channel or incorporated into “speed up and simplify the audit classes”, and allowed green bonds to institutional investors in a public offering. (2) preferential policies. Currently provides green bonds to raise money can be relaxed to 80% per cent total investment to raise funds to repay Bank loans and supplement working capital ratio raised to 50%; it has approved Green Project Green bonds, and meets the conditions for investment, special construction funds in the central budget support, special construction funds will be given priority support. With the development of green bonds, is expected to introduce more appropriate policies at the national level in the future to support measures to encourage green bonds.

Q5 investor: why should I invest in green bonds?

A: in the foreign market, issuance of green bonds is often beyond offering, be the object of institutional investors. In China, green bonds also has must investment value: (1) investment green bonds has became global range within institutions investors of consensus, investment of environment benefits became judge institutions of important standard one of, capital began influx new energy, and energy-saving technology, green industry; (2) national on green industry support efforts great, future Government related sector is expected to introduced offers policy support green bonds development, green bonds returns rate level reasonable, has must of configuration value.

Underwriters Q6: how should the guidance issuance of green bonds by the issuer?

A,: in general bonds of issued process zhiwai, focus concern green bonds issued people in project assessment and filter and raised funds using and management aspects of normative, which, project assessment and filter link main according to green bonds support project directory, reference professional environment assessment institutions and third party certification institutions of assessment certification views, counselling investors filter out meet related standard of green project or intends voted project pool; addition, underwriting business also needed help issued people perfect its in project assessment and filter process, and raised funds management , Information disclosure and other aspects of construction funds for issuers for continuous supervision and information disclosure.

Original title: on six core issues green bonds

Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1 2015 March 31 2016 grid connected

Polaris solar PV net news: Anhui Province, according to the State grid electric power company, now the province on January 1, 2015-related information be publicized on March 31, 2016, on-grid PV power station projects. Publication time is 10 working days from the date of issue, if there is an error or omission please feedback to me, reflects the bearer or signed letter (including electronic communications), the Anonymous objection is inadmissible.

Annex: Anhui Province, the ground grid-connected PV power plant project information sheet

Host Department: Department of energy’s new energy industry development in Anhui Province

Address: 124th lujiang road, Hefei, Anhui Province, 6/f, Chuang Yuan building, room 616

Postal code: 230061

Email: [email protected]

Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information


Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information

Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information

Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information

Energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information

Original title: energy Bureau of Anhui Province on January 1, 2015-March 31, 2016, grid-connected photovoltaic project information

Sharp intends to lay off or peel 1000 solar business

Polaris solar PV net news: Japan, sharp has become Taiwan’s Hon Hai (Mainland business known as Foxconn) subsidiary. When signing a purchase agreement, Foxconn head Terry Gou said, will do its best to ensure that no job cuts. However, according to Nikkei News reported on April 28, once again, sharp is considering to cut 1000 jobs. This one could hurt poor operating performance of solar energy business.

In the just-ended quarter and in the previous fiscal year as a whole, showing sharp losses. Foxconn formal when sharp, fears that Gou will sharp to carry out large-scale reorganization, including through massive layoffs as well as improve operational efficiency. But at the signing ceremony, GOU said he would try to safeguard jobs, but he also said Foxconn’s internal elimination system.

In the deal, Foxconn funded the $ 3.5 billion, got a two-thirds stake in sharp. Japan media that Foxconn took advantage of sharp’s predicament, accounted for a “bargain”, the final purchase price much lower than the first bid. Next, sharp will continue to operate independently.

The Nikkei pointed out that sharp new 1000 people downsizing initiatives may be management’s poor performance as a last resort and that not by Foxconn or Gou ordered layoffs.

In 2012, the sharp investment in LCD Panel errors, the company was almost bankrupt, when sharp introduced the voluntary early retirement scheme and reduce 3,000 employees last year as the performance continues to bad, sharp once again laid off 3200 employees.

End of the last fiscal year ending March, sharp as well as subsidiaries in Japan the number of employment to nearly 20,000 people, only four years ago, two-thirds scale, which employs 15,000 people directly under the sharp.

According to a Nikkei report, sharp is still considering the exact size of this round of cuts, policy, etc. Layoffs are mainly based on the work of staff time in the past, and this time, sharp may want to consider reducing the number of underperforming factory employees, so more likely affected are solar business staff and storage battery business.

In just the past year, Sharpe had expected to realize profits, but under the revised expectations, sharp may face huge losses of 1.5 billion dollars.

Whether the new owner, Foxconn, and now management have seen the need for an early reorganization of the sharp business, quickly fill the loss of hole.

Sharp’s most important business (and Mr Gou’s prized asset) is a flat panel business, but due to weaker phone sales and other reasons, the LCD screen is shrinking. Even after belonging to Foxconn, sharp’s LCD business within short time difficult to get change.

And to make matters worse, recent media reports Apple has signed an agreement with Samsung Electronics, purchased 100 million pieces of OLED screens, new phone for next year. In the display panel industry in the transformation process from liquid crystal OLED-oriented, sharp appears backward. It is reported that sharp had mastered some of the OLED technology, but does not possess the capability of mass production.

Sharp’s Solar business has been poor. In February, Mr GOU has said, if sharp, successful, it is possible to peel off loss-making solar business for a long time.

Sharp is another ailing businesses are household appliances, it is learned that Foxconn will not give up this business, it is possible to transfer their manufacturing operations to mainland China, to reduce costs, promotion and competitiveness among China’s household electrical appliance enterprises.

Along with the acquisition by Foxconn, more personnel cuts may occur in the future. But Japan media also noted that sharp needs to pay attention to the problem of brain drain. There are already some sharp LCD panel business talent, to competitors.

In addition, while Foxconn is already nominally is sharp’s new owners, but Foxconn purchase funds to the account of the last deadline on October 5 this year, Foxconn is hard to immediately get into sharp’s day-to-day management decisions.

Original title: Gou impatience “wield the axe”?
Sharp intends to cut 1000 jobs

The Xinjiang regional new energy power plants and coal fired power plant peak

Polaris solar PV net news: State development and Reform Commission, the economic and information Commission and bingtuan development and Reform Commission, Commission, Xinjiang, State grid electric power companies, Huadian, guodian power company in Xinjiang Xinjiang electricity company, Xinjiang, China Power Investment Corporation, Huaneng, Datang power generation in Xinjiang Xinjiang energy company limited, the Shenhua Xinjiang branch, the relevant electricity enterprise, enterprise-owned power plant:

For advance and specification new energy power enterprise and coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak alternative trading, expand new energy elimination na space, I do in 2015 new energy power enterprise and coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak alternative of based Shang, combined currently power run reality, drafting has Xinjiang regional new energy power enterprise and coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak alternative trading implementation rules (sought views draft), now issued to you, please Institute mention modified views, and Yu May 3, 2016 19:0 0 (Beijing time) feedback before I do.

Contact person: Gan Hongliang

Tel: 0991-36313310991-3631331 (fax)

Email: [email protected]

Annex: the Xinjiang new energy power plants with coal-fired power plant peak alternative trading rules (draft for soliciting opinions).

1. General provisions

1.1 purpose

For implement implementation on further deepening power reform of several views (in the sent (2015) 9th,) file and the related supporting file spirit, deepening power reform, full play market in resources configuration in the of decisive role, further specification and advance new energy enterprise and coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak alternative trading (following referred to adjustable peak alternative trading), expand new energy elimination na space, perfect electric price formed mechanism, promote specification transparent of market trading mechanism construction, achieved power alternative trading of public, and fair, and Justice.

1.2 basis

This rules according to People’s Republic of China power method, and People’s Republic of China can renewable energy method, and on issued can renewable energy power full supportability acquisition management approach (sent modified energy (2016) No. 625,), and on improved power run regulation promote clean energy more sent full sent of guide views (sent modified run (2015) No. 518,), and on carried out can renewable energy near elimination na pilot of notification (sent modified do run (2015) No. 2554,), and On do 2016 power run regulation work of notification (sent modified run (2016) No. 413,), and on do “three North” area can renewable energy elimination na work of notification (country can regulatory (2016) 39th,), and on established can renewable energy utilization target guide system of guide views (country can new can (2016) 54th,), and on do 2016 degrees wind electric elimination na work about requirements of notification (country can new can (2016) 74th,), national about regulations, and procedures, and industry standard, and file,, while reference on strengthening and specification coal-fired owned power plant supervision management of guide views (sent modified by body (2015) No. 2752,), and thermoelectric cogeneration management approach (sent modified energy [2016]617,) file requirements, according to on 2016 Xinjiang grid clean energy alternative owned power plant promote owned power plant participation grid adjustable peak work programme of reply (new by letter power letter (2016) 140th) identified principles, combined with the power grid in 2015, Xinjiang new energy enterprises with coal-fired power plant peak alternative trading pilot projects, and other provinces to carry out pilot projects, preparation of the implementing rules.

1.3 scope

New energy and coal-fired power plant peak alternative trading (hereinafter: peak substitute transactions) refers to ensure safe operation, in full Council new energy, meeting the Xinjiang region on the basis of electricity market and transmission, tap the coal-fired power plant peak spaces, through the peak of the new alternative energy power plant, a substantial increase of new energy generating capacity.

These rules apply to the region of Xinjiang new energy enterprises with coal-fired power plant peak alternative trading (hereinafter: peak substitute transaction).

1.4 basic principles

1.4.1 adhere to market-oriented and market-driven. In new energy enterprise power side and coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak and electricity side introduced market trading compensation mechanism, through market means, will compensation price signal reflect grid adjustable peak capacity increased, expand new energy enterprise power space Shang, ease for grid adjustable peak blocked caused abandoned electric power of increased (for grid conveying blocked separately solution), promote new energy elimination na scale substantive increased, play market configuration power resources of role.

1.4.2 adhered to the “safety first”, a fair and open network, maintenance of electric power dispatching order to ensure orderly supply of electric power system safe and stable operation and power.

1.4.3 adhere to energy saving and emission reduction, promote the adjustment of industrial structure. In the pilot of the new energy enterprises and coal-fired power plant in line with State industrial policies and the requirements on energy conservation and environmental protection, energy-saving emission reduction achieved the whole society.

1.4.4 insist on steady, balanced, anticipate market risks, promote sustainable and healthy development. Peak-load regulation alternative trading pilot shall establish operating rules and a unified trading platform, implementing effective market regulation, regulate the pilot work carried out in an orderly manner.

1.4.5 adhered to the “open, fair and just” market transaction parties participate on a voluntary basis, establishing standard transparent trading mechanisms.

1.5 products

1.5.1 according to the trading deadline, peak-alternative transactions are divided into annual transactions.

1.5.2 Trade Organization, peak substitute transactions into concentrated matchmaking (bid) listed for trading transactions, and so on.

1.5.3 annual traded generation should be broken down into monthly, and monthly actual settlement of electricity monthly, annual liquidation.

1.6 power

1.6.1 peak-alternative power to ensure the safe and stable operation and reliable power supply for the base, according to the integrated power plant unit load capacity to balance the entire network and new energy to abandon electricity (electricity load) it was determined that temporary state information Commission approval at the present stage of clean energy alternatives provide the electric power generation determines the principles of the programme of work.

1.6.2 participating in peak-load regulation of alternative trading coal-fired power plant company, new energy power generation enterprises and power grid operation enterprise scheduling and settlement of relations remains unchanged, by power grid operating enterprises with coal-fired power plant company, new energy to electricity and electricity measurement, validation and settlement. Coal-fired power plant company peak-load regulation of power electricity production-only substitute transactions for personal use, not for resale.

1.6.3 peak alternative power including coal-fired power plant peak alternative transactions monthly plan of unplanned outage, network capacity, planned downtime exceeded scheduled institution arose after the net increase in electricity and so on.

1.7 other

1.7.1 this rule the dimension of power involved in megawatts (MW), dimensioned for megawatt-hours of electricity (MWh), dimension/MWh of electricity price (/MWh).

1.7.2 Trade Organization must advance notice.

2. marketing management

2.1 subject of market transactions, grid operators and market operators responsibilities

2.1.1. market including new energy and coal-fired power plant. Market operations include electricity trader (referred to as power trading center), power dispatch Agency (now the power dispatching control center, known as power control center).

(1) new energy (substitute): means conditions of access, complete the registration procedures of wind power and photovoltaic power plants.

(2) the coal-fired power plant (replaced): refer to meet the entry criteria, complete the registration procedures of coal-fired power plant.

(3) power grid operating enterprises: refer to meet the entry criteria, complete the registration procedures of power grid operating enterprises.

2.1.2 new energy power generation enterprises

According to the rules of participating in peak-alternative transactions; conclude and implement peak alternative trading contracts and agreements; to provide required support services according to disclose and provide information, get information on peak regulation alternative trading and power generation services; comply with the purchase and sale contract, the grid scheduling agreement, the scheduling of the running procedures, subject to the unified power dispatch scheduling.

2.1.3 coal-fired power plant companies:

Is responsible for itself of sent electricity security; by rules participation adjustable peak alternative trading; signed and perform adjustable peak alternative trading contract and the agreement; on time full paid electricity; by provides disclosure and provides related information, get adjustable peak alternative trading and lost distribution service, related information; comply with for electricity contract, and grid scheduling agreement, and scheduling run procedures and needs side management provides, obey power scheduling institutions of unified scheduling.

2.1.4 power grid operating enterprises

Peak-load regulation of alternative trading and transmission, ensure the safe and stable operation of power transmission and distribution facilities, for the market provides fair transmission and distribution services, network access service and sale of electricity; on the required disclosures and provide information on the grid; according to the stipulations concerning collection of transmission and distribution fees, collecting pay the electricity charges and Government funds and an additional.

2.1.5 market operations

(1) is responsible for management market trading subject of registered, and cancellation, and change; is responsible for organization carried out annual adjustable peak alternative trading; is responsible for adjustable peak alternative trading contract and the agreement management; is responsible for prepared trading monthly plans; is responsible for adjustable peak alternative trading power reproduces, and settlement and Statistics analysis; is responsible for released power market information; by authorized on market take intervention measures; is responsible for power trading platform (containing power market trading operation system, referred to trading operation system) of management; is responsible for implementation ordered electricity programme Responsible for generation-side measurement points and measurement device management responsible for peak-load regulation alternative trading related business consulting.

(2) the responsible power system dispatching operation, maintaining power system safe and stable operation, keep the power balance in real time; provide peaking power network operation and maintenance information related to the alternative trading; for the peak-load regulation of alternative trading security check and transmission congestion management is responsible for implementing all kinds of contracts, according to monthly transaction scheduling operation plan, and implementation.

(3) electric network structure characteristics in Xinjiang, are blocked, such as constraints, peak-alternative trading access and exit of the observations and recommendations made.

(4) according to power administrative competent sector audit announced of access results, organization participation adjustable peak alternative trading of new energy power enterprise, and coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise in trading platform Shang completed registered Hou, and in trading platform Shang on through audit of new energy power enterprise, and coal-fired owned power plant belongs Enterprise gives adjustable peak alternative trading permission; on last year carried out has adjustable peak alternative trading, and but this year qualification review not through of new energy power enterprise and coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise, By market operators list according to access published by the Administrative Department, cancel the qualification of its peak-alternative trading on the trading platform.

2.2 market entry and exit

2.2.1. basic terms

Participating in peak-load regulation of alternative trading markets, should be qualified as a legal person, financial accounting, good credit and the ability to independently assume civil liability economic entities. Electricity users in the internal accounting, power generation enterprise authorized by the Corporation may participate in the corresponding transaction.

2.2.2. market access conditions new energy power generation enterprises

In line with national industrial governance and the construction approval process, meet the energy saving and environmental protection requirements and the technical requirements for grid-connected, the electricity business licenses (power), has business operations before June 30 has not been made at this stage of electric power business licenses (power type) cancel bid for power. Supporting direct current (DC) delivery of new energy and decentralized, distributed enterprises not participating in new energy; coal-fired power plant enterprises

Meet national industry policy and the environmental requirements, its unit should and belongs Enterprise electricity load phase match, that through enterprise itself sent, and electricity way of deployment, can achieved stability, and continuity, and substantive Xia network load of coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise, that can take reduced coal-fired owned power plant unit power output or downtime alternate, measures, achieved must of Xia network power, and power, expanded grid adjustable peak capacity, substantive upgrade new energy enterprise elimination na space of coal-fired owned power plant belongs Enterprise; utilization of owned power plant unit and “Back-pressure” power plant units not involved.

2.2.3. entry and exit mechanisms enters peak instead of main market trading market should remain relatively stable, during the contract period (or transaction) shall not renounce in principle, be their own responsibility is limited trading, voluntary and mandatory withdrawal may not re-enter the peak in three years of alternative markets, contract and rules of engagement and compensation-related losses. market dealers, one of the following acts, electricity trading center authorized to cancel its peak alternative market registration, and the parties liable for breach of contract.

(1) the registered trade subject merger, bankruptcy, reorganization, merger, Division, change, ask for a cancellation of the original market dealers; electric power business licenses have been cancelled, out of business, unable to continue to perform the contract;

(2) violation of market rules (such as collusion offer, malicious offer seriously disturbed market order);

(3) violation of State power or environmental policies;

(4) unauthorized purchased electricity for resale to other users without permission;

(5) integrated without justifiable reason not to obey the power regulation;

(6) failing to pay electricity bills, defaults peak tariff for a substitute transaction.

(7) participate in peak-load regulation of alternative trading major security risks;

(8) other illegal activities.

2.3 market transaction parties to register and unregister

2.3.1 market transactions subject to registration in the trade bodies and peak replacement transaction could take part in trading after the market registered, registration procedures are as follows:

(1) market at least 10 working days (or determine power-purchase pattern for 20 working days a year ago) to the Trade Center submitted a written application for registration materials, including trading application for operating system use.

Coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise registered application material including: coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise participation adjustable peak alternative trading registered application table, and trading member registered application table, and digital certification certificate (power trading certificate) application table, and Enterprise license, and organization institutions code card, and tax registration card, and for electricity contract, and and grid operation Enterprise occurred for electricity relationship of user coding, and access directory, original or copy information.

Registration materials including new energy power generation enterprises: new energy power plants participating in peak-alternative deal registration application form, traders registered in their applications, a digital certificate (trade certificates) application form, as well as corporate business licenses, corporate code certificate, tax registration certificate, power business permits, access to directories, such as original or copy.

(2) electricity trading center after receiving registration applications within 10 working days after completion of the audit, sent to the audit subject through market transactions approved by the notice to the audit does not send notice of audit does not pass through the market, explain the reasons in writing and filing to regulators.

(3) receive notice of approval subject within 5 working days of market transactions, signed a peak-alternative transactions into agreement and transaction management system use agreement. Electricity trading center transaction subject to the market as a trading platform account, use of manual and digital certification information and necessary training according to market requirements.

(4) market transactions registered in the trading platform within 2 working days, coal-fired power plant enterprises through trading system trading power purchase model is selected.

2.3.2 the registered subject of market transactions, when the registered information is changed, within 10 working days, to handle the registration of the Trade Center submitted written information changes and change registration information, electricity trading center within 5 business days of completing the registration information changes.

2.3.3 to one of the following conditions occurs, power trading center should have the market trading the trading qualification of the subject:

(1) in accordance with section 2.2.3 cancel qualification;

(2) without justifiable reasons and failed the annual qualification review;

(3) violation of the electricity market rules, in line with the exit criteria;

(4) market transactions subject to exit the application, examination and approval of the.

2.3.4 market trades qualification after logging off, must be performed according to the following provisions:

(1) stopping peak-alternative transactions;

(2) within 15 working days to settle accounts with the other subjects of market transactions and payments;

(3) qualifications before logging off and other market transactions the main existing disputes through dispute resolution procedures in the market.

2.3.5 market transactions after subjects complete the register, information modification and cancellation procedures, electricity trading center within 3 business days through the trading platform to publish relevant information, and report to the energy regulators.

2.3.6 peak alternative transaction subject to change registration or deregistration, shall apply to the trade body, when approved, may change or cancel registration when registration is complete, alternative trade subject such as peak could not continue to meet the conditions of access to markets, registered by the electricity trading firms were forced to withdraw.

2.3.7 market trading was compulsory or voluntary withdrawal from the market, incomplete contracts and agreements can be transferred within the stipulated time, terminates execution did not transfer over, and borne by the defaulting party of breach of contract.

2.4 coal-fired unit peaking under the alternative network power-purchase pattern

2.4.1. the alternative deal registration complete peak coal-fired power plant is a member of both enterprise network power-purchase pattern: some peak-alternative trading buy mode and full power mode (that is, not to participate in the peak-load regulation alternative trading).

(1) select part adjustable peak alternative trading mode of coal-fired owned power plant belongs enterprise can through market alternative trading way purchased electric, must ahead of to power trading institutions declared annual, and monthly purchased electric plans and adjustable peak alternative trading plans, monthly purchased electric plans within actual bid of adjustable peak alternative trading points months power plans can in prepared 10th Qian proposed modified application, and for points months scroll adjustment, but trading cycle within completed all bid power, adjustable peak alternative trading power of implementation, and deviation power calculation, and Liability assumed pursuant to the present rules shall apply.

(2) choose purchase from the grid in full electric mode (that is, not to participate in the peak-load regulation alternative trading), all of its electricity to the power grid operators to purchase.

2.4.2 coal-fired power plant belongs to the purchase price from the peak price in the substitute transaction, power and Government funds and additional transmission and distribution price is composed of three parts. At this stage, select the Central set (bid), according to specific prior transactions, transaction price set set (bid) price after. Specific transaction modes are as follows:

(1) the CIS method

New energy price changes will be fully transmitted to the coal-fired power plant company power side, the peak price in the substitute transaction transactions execute the bid prices, trading bid corresponds to the power power power prices trade bidding prices, trading bid power corresponding to the basic electricity prices remain unchanged for the original standard;

Coal-fired power plant company peak price in the substitute transaction (corresponding to the electric power prices) = the company with a net electric power prices-trading rules benchmark for determining benefit price 200 Yuan/MWh-the enterprise market clearing prices.

New energy alternative trading price = new energy power generation enterprises approved price (with re power subsidy price)-trading rules benchmark for determining benefit price 200 Yuan/MWh-new energy clearing prices.

(2) transmission and distribution price method

New energy power generation enterprises stacked transmission and distribution price changes in cumulative changes in prices after the transmission to a coal-fired power plant company electric side, the peak price in the substitute transaction transactions execute the bid prices, trading bid corresponds to the power power power prices trade bidding prices, trading bid corresponds to the electricity price by “transmission and distribution price” corresponds to standards. Transmission and distribution price peak alternative transactions criteria set by the program.

Coal-fired power plant company peak price in the substitute transaction (corresponding to the electric power prices) = new energy power generation enterprises implement price (excluding power subsidy price) + power-transmission and distribution prices and Government funds (rule benchmark for determining benefit price 200 Yuan/MWh + new energy clearing prices).

2.5 market rule amendments

2.5.1 market subject and market operators have an obligation to modify the rules for the implementation of the recommendations on a regular basis.

2.5.2 the energy regulator is responsible for the implementation details of the amendments.

2.6 formulation of temporary provisions

2.6.1 where rules do not meet the needs of power market trading, regulators may make temporary provisions implemented after further explanation of reasons for developing the market.

2.6.2 the temporary provisions will be effective release, these rules conflict with the temporary provisions in part temporary failure.

2.6.3 the validity of the temporary provisions should be developed, within the period of validity, should be according to the actual situation in a timely manner organizations revised rules for the implementation of the relevant provisions, clauses after the entry into force of the amendments, temporary provisions void.

3. the transaction

3.1 set matching and centralized price bidding in trading

3.1.1 Overview

Through power trading operation platform declared trading needs, by power trading operation platform according to selected (announcement publicity) of calculation method for pre out clear calculation, determine new energy power enterprise, and coal-fired owned power plant belongs Enterprise subject participation adjustable peak alternative trading power and electric price, formed no constraints trading results (pre out clear), by power scheduling institutions security check Hou formed has constraints out clear (trading results and official out clear), Parties according to trading results and signed of market agreement implementation adjustable peak alternative trading power, and electric price, and Allocation and implementation.

Boundary conditions of coal-fired power plant units include: real-time active power peak and spinning reserve and peak (fixed network load cycling within the unit, its peak at 30%) and down alternate peak in three ways.

Boundary conditions including new energy power generation enterprises: new energy project area three years calculated as average monthly hours of comprehensive utilization of, and considering the new energy power generation capacity, peak is blocked and the electricity grid is blocked, and so on.

3.1.2 to declare the charge and prices declaration procedure

Peak coal-fired power plant owned enterprises conducted substitute transaction reporting and clear, then new energy reporting and clearing, and determine what formal clearing coal-fired power plant electricity, electricity price before the new energy companies formally clearing electricity prices, the proportion of regional involvement in electricity, forecasts by region corresponds to the annual power closing ratio. Declaration data including transaction boundary conditions, execution time, quantity and price, and so on. One coal-fired power plant company in accordance with the three boundary conditions to declare electricity and prices (price from low to high declarations declare up to three); new energy as a boundary condition to declare the charge and prices (prices from high to low reporting, reporting up to three). price reporting:

Coal-fired owned power plant belongs Enterprise: to adjustable peak alternative trading set of let electric price 200 Yuan/MW Shi for benchmark value (each reference set), declared phase corresponds to of price variable (positive said price range, negative said price range, can for 0); as declared price variable for limit Shi, its changes range shall not over limit range and conditions, beyond limit range and conditions of considered not qualified quotes.

New energy power Enterprise: to alternative trading set of let electric price 200 Yuan/MW Shi for benchmark value (each reference set), declared phase corresponds to of price variable (positive said price range, negative said price range, can for 0); as declared price variable for limit Shi, its changes range shall not over limit range and conditions, beyond limit range and conditions of considered not qualified quotes. power declare

New energy power generation enterprises to declare the annual minimum of 10 megawatt-hours of electricity, in accordance with the increase in multiples of 10 megawatt-hours up to declare electricity, declared price is accurate to 0.1 Yuan per MWh, in accordance with the project at this stage predict partition utilization hours 50% for qualifications.

Coal-fired power plant company declared an annual minimum of 100 megawatt-hours of electricity, in accordance with the increase in multiples of 100 MWh up to declare electricity, declared price is accurate to 0.1 Yuan per MWh.

3.1.3 calculation method of centralized trading clearing clear principles and requirements

(1) in accordance with principles determined trading pattern has been selected. “Go push law” “transmission and distribution price”.

(2) in favour of eliminating new energy for the principles are clear. clearing method: specific centralized set (bid), the tone of trading clearing method should be in the bulletin publication and clear. Concentrated matchmaking (bid) the details out of the calculation, such as the “high-low match methods”, “lowest price-matching method,” “marginal pricing method” clearing can be calculated “traded” the electricity out of the clearing method of calculation, price determined according to the listed price.

3.1.4 concentrated trade clearing

Centralized bidding transactions cleared include: clear and formally cleared in two stages.

First stage: the initial clearing period during first annual peak alternative to coal-fired power plant electricity, pre-clearing price calculation, then partition the new energy alternative power peak annual scale, pre-clearing price calculation. alternative power for coal-fired power plant-year peak out of the calculation, first sorted according to the boundary conditions, followed by let sort prices from small to large in absolute terms, final prices in accordance with the same boundary conditions correspond to let boundaries clear. Specific method of calculation: according to the boundary conditions (real-time active power peak) and two boundary conditions (spinning reserve and peak) reporting power, electricity prices sorted according to the boundary conditions for a further three (down an alternate peak) sort declarations corresponds to electricity, electricity prices, respectively; the same boundary conditions in accordance with the profit-sharing changes sort price from small to large.

Clearing calculated priority according to the boundary conditions are sort of way clearing calculated real-time active power peak power, the electricity price clearing calculations, then spinning reserve and peaking out of calculation, finally stopping the standby peaking out calculations. Dang border conditions one or two items has meet alternative power Shi, is all determine for pre out clear power; Dang border conditions one or two items not meet alternative power Shi, for third items border conditions sort and calculation, price variable not while, according to let electric price small of priority out clear, price phase while, by declared power proportion and run way for pre out clear (no constraints out clear). Calculation method:

M annual pre out peak-alternative real-time active power =M1+M2+M3=M1 electric power peak-load regulation power +M2 standby spinning reserve and peak power +M3 downtime peak power

When the M1+M2 more than targets set by the Government charge, for pre-clearing power

When the M1+M2< Government's target charge and m is out of power

Coal-fired power plant company peak price in the substitute transaction (corresponding to the electric power prices) = net electric power prices-benchmarking of the enterprise let the price 200 Yuan/MWh-Enterprise clearing prices (quoting declared after the clearing price). alternative power new energy peak out of the calculation, first let the price changes from small to high volume sorting (cannot exceed the limit lower limit), followed by three years before the new energy projects regional monthly average utilization hours sum 50% cleared for boundary conditions (unconstrained market clearing).

Calculation method:

N clean alternative power peak annual pre-=N1+N2+N3 … … ;

N1 set a region involved in alternative transaction reporting peak electricity +N2 set another area involved in alternative transaction reporting peak electricity +N3 … … ;

N1 set a region involved in alternative transaction reporting kWh = ∑ peak power generation enterprise reporting within the same region electricity, such as a declaration of a power plant electricity > partition sum three years before the monthly average utilization hours of 50% boundary conditions, reduced in accordance with the 50% boundary conditions, such as ≤ 50% for boundary conditions, in accordance with the Declaration of energy clearing;

When n ≥ m, and n is the new energy clearing charge when when N

Second stage: the official clearing Trade Center pre clearing security check results delivered electric power dispatching agencies and in accordance with the new energy order checking after the first coal-fired power plant. according to power scheduling institutions security check given of coal-fired owned power plant adjustable peak alternative power Hou, trading center should for integrated calculation, dang not meet security constraints of requirements Shi, if corresponds to of owned power plant unit needed adjustable reduction adjustable peak alternative trading power Shi, border conditions one or two of power not do adjustable reduction; priority will border conditions three of alternative power for adjustable reduction, and will let electric price changes big of unit priority adjustable reduction, Declared power ratio can be calculated the same conditions (or according to the environmental protection level) down principles until the substitute transaction goals out of the value.

Restricted clearing (clearing): by the scheduling of the total peak-alternative power, coal-fired power plant enterprises involved in alternative transactions of the annual peak alternative power, power constitutes a three-month index, trade centres and the formation of coal-fired power plant enterprises restricted clearing.

Annual clearing charge calculation method: monthly replacement battery for predicted values (scrollable).

W2 a alternative power =W enterprises in autonomous power plant of a power plant enterprises annual total net generation-W1

W1=-owned units to adjust output after the formation of the annual alternative energy (annual net purchase quantity);

Adjusting the output of W2=-owned unit after the formation of the annual alternative energy = the annual real-time active power peak power + standby spinning reserve and peak power + downtime peak power;

M annual peak alternative power = ∑ W2=M1+M2+M3=M1 real-time active power peak power +M2 standby spinning reserve and peak power +M3 downtime peak power

When the M1+M2 more than targets set by the Government charge, check power after the corresponding value is formally out of power, no adjustment is made;

The goals set when the M1+M2< Government power, M3=M-(M1+M2) as a checking power, peak alternative power-owned power generating units correspond to the boundary three total power is formally out of power;

Annual clearing price calculation method: determine what Enterprise coal-fired power plant peak price in the substitute transaction (corresponding to the electric power prices) = the company with a net electric power prices-has won the bid to let electricity prices.

Coal-fired power plant owned enterprises such as the original power implementation of peak-Valley electricity price, alternative power peak price in accordance with paragraph Declaration, matching and clearing calculated alternative transactions corresponds to the peak power all in accordance with the electricity price, net of electricity to be purchased in the original standard. according to electric power dispatching security checking given the regional new energy peak the substitute transaction total electricity, partition, “power”, “electricity”, “blocked grid electricity”, “blocked peak power”, the Center should be taken together, given the annual peak in the region instead of power out of proportion. Grid blocked area does not meet out of proportion, proportional reduction, such as blocked areas, and proportional increase non-blocked regions, keep out roughly the same region of the principles until the peak alternative transactions correspond to total electricity power plant unit alternative transaction charge; in the region in accordance with the declared electricity percentage reductions or increases.

Restricted clearing (clearing): by the scheduling of the total peak-alternative power, the regional new energy companies involved in alternative transactions of the annual peak of alternative power ratio, power balance scale consisting of three-month indicators, trade centres and the formation of new energy companies have cleared.

Annual clearing power ratio calculation method: monthly ratio of alternative power for predicted values (scrollable).

Housing Ministry published solar PV system supports the common criteria

Polaris solar PV net news: ratification of the General technical requirements for the construction of solar photovoltaic system supports industry standard, numbered JG/T490-2016, implemented since July 1, 2016.

By my standards this standard fixed standard Publishing House, China organized by the Institute.

People’s Republic of China Ministry of housing and urban-rural development

The January 27, 2016

Original title: Housing Ministry published solar PV system supports the common criteria

SunEdison bankruptcy owing the most serious blow to 321 million dollars under

Polaris solar PV net news: according to the documentation submitted to the bankruptcy court for the Southern District of New York, renewable energy company SunEdison bankruptcy owe their upstream suppliers more than $ 321 million.

Mainly fabless factories, SunEdison has been through outsourcing and solar cell and module manufacturers traded some internal polysilicon and silicon wafer production, for eventual downstream PV power station project.

According to court documents, for the production of polysilicon producer PCSPhosphate of Silicon Tetrafluoride, SunEdison bankruptcy a few days ago the most affected suppliers, is owed more than $ 193 million.

SunEdison announced in February 2016, to the third quarter of 2016 it will permanently close its Pasadena, Texas polysilicon production plant.

The closing will result in a one-time impairment and restructuring charges of US $ 363 million, is expected in 2016 would yield approximately $ 10 million to $ 13 million in restructuring charges.

Debt may indicate a PCSPhosphate huge, long before its last quarterly conference call November 2015, SunEdison is struggling with the liquidity problem.

Ranked high in the list is the PV module Assembly contractors and suppliers of single-axis tracking, through the acquisition of NEXTracker,FlextronicsInternational (Flex) is owed more than $ 44 million.

Several mainstream PV modules supplier is involved in the bankruptcy, including the “Silicon components Super League” (SMSL) Member Trina (TrinaSolar) and JA Solar holdings (JASolar), are each owed $ 10.52 million and 10.38 million u.s. dollars.

Other PV module suppliers, such as Jin to clean energy technology (Jinneng Clean Energy), SunEdison recently with the China’s monocrystalline silicon solar cell/module manufacturers reached a joint venture agreement, expansion of production capacity of 1.5GW to 2GW capacity new targets, is owed $ 16.23 million.

SolarparkKorea, another integrated Mono solar cell/module manufacturers, is owed $ 14.84 million.

Leading semiconductor foundry Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company (TSMC) subsidiary, and Taiwan CIGS thin-film solar maker TSMC (TSMCSolar) said it will close its factory in late August 2015 and a complete withdrawal from the PV market, according to the supply agreement, the company still is owed $ 2.66 million.

IHS study on the solar supply chain Senior Manager EdurneZoco said: “bankruptcy filing will not affect the global PV supply chain. It will mainly affect the direct suppliers and partners. At present, SunEdison remaining manufacturing asset, no obvious buyers. As part of its ongoing restructuring, end of 2015 SunEdison idled its polysilicon plant in Pasadena, and reached an agreement, sale to Lungi Malaysia wafer factory. Polysilicon in Pasadena, plant closures and SunEdison Korea polysilicon plants increase in uncertainty about the future, and further reduce the poly have stalled manufacturing base, increased fears about 2016 global supply and demand conditions. ”

SunEdison has recently pointed out in its official declarations, it will seek to sell non-core assets, but there is no direct reference to the United States and Korea polysilicon production business.

Still is not clear whether the court file containing all of their upstream suppliers.

Original title: SunEdison bankruptcy owing the most serious blow to 321 million dollars under suppliers

Photovoltaic industry in electricity demand slowed innovation space

Polaris solar PV net news: as a monopoly industry, what is the business model innovation in the energy sector of space, the National Energy Board are given their own direction.

In the National Energy Board on 2016 energy issued guidance in notice, listed to encourage the development of new industries. Generally revolves around three main aspects of electric vehicle charging infrastructure, “Internet +” smart energy actions and implement electric energy alternative.

Among them, more attention is the second, or “Internet +” smart energy actions. As hot last year, but there is little progress in a hot concept, this year whether there will be real progress, it is worth attention.

From the framework of the National Energy Board’s view, “Internet +” smart energy actions can be described as rich, to the administration of the city, from energy trading, as well as new model of electric vehicle applications.

In this regard, the industry believes that, in addition to the more trendy concept, new energy, including photovoltaic companies, how to find some better way to solve the problems existing in the industry, such as the peak, to dissolve on the spot, is also noteworthy.

National Energy Board says, to explore wind energy, photovoltaic to dissolve on the spot using new business models. Resolve to abandon wind, abandoned, abandoned water industry development problems, explore pilot renewable energy target management mechanism.

The soft underbelly of the industry innovation opportunities

For the energy industry, particularly in the power industry, there are two of the main problems currently facing. First, a general slowdown; Secondly, it is in this context, conflicts of interest between different power supplies, which is mainly reflected in thermal power and clean energy, nuclear, wind, photovoltaic, and.

But for clean energy, and despite its policy tilt, as well as the needs of environmental protection, but in the context of economic slowdown brought about by the comprehensive consideration of issues such as employment pressure, especially in the part of clean energy still has to rely on massive subsidies to survive situations, with thermal power direct conflicts of interest, chances of clean energy, may be unknown.

Therefore, new energy, including photovoltaic, if you want to get a better space for development, expected tilt in policy and care, may be less and less realistic. So, also are asking for a way out, including the early settlement of generating instability and intermittent nature of vulnerable.

Specifically, the way to solve this problem, including increased peak power stations, energy storage devices or is found to match power demand.

In terms of peak, national energy Administration said, encouraging the development of natural gas peak power station, moderate speed up the construction of pumped-storage power station. Promoting cogeneration units participating peaking, encourages the development of cogeneration in back-pressure as well as introduce policy measures promoting energy storage technology breakthrough, promoting large-scale participation in peak-load regulation applications.

In addition, in terms of power dispatch the Department of energy said, introduction of energy-saving and low-carbon power generation scheduling approach, giving priority to dispatch of renewable power generation, adjust the order of the coal-fired unit peaking.

In terms of local absorptive and operation mode of distributed energy resources to innovation, encourages the development of integration of Advanced Micro-grid energy storage technologies and information technology. Improve resource utilization unit financial support policy.

“The Internet +” smart energy or substance

In addition to some difficult problems within the industry through innovative ways to resolve and innovation space, comes from the expansion of the electric power consumption, as well as how to better manage and so on.

National Energy Board are given to encourage the development of new formats, including electric vehicle charging infrastructure, “Internet +” smart power instead of three main aspects of energy action and implementation.

In particular, the “Internet +” smart energy operations, construction of both intelligence and wisdom of the city small town, including the development of energy storage and electric vehicles, wisdom with new flexible mode and green energy trading market model, and so on.

In addition, also include a number of collaborative and integrated energy networks, energy data service applies the Internet eco-system construction, and energy.

However, insiders believe that “Internet +” smart energy action of specific progress may also be dependent upon the opening of the electricity market, in particular business model, such as energy and the Internet energy trading market. From international experience, the latter also greater imagination, including marketing electricity side brought about the opening of the increase in the number of market players, based on the user side of the energy market opportunities will be emerging on the Internet. From the perspective of international markets, in a diversification of power generation, electricity in electricity markets, will spawn new business opportunities as well as business models, some of the more feasible based on competition arising from the increase in electricity sales various services.

Examples of this have appeared in foreign countries. United States Opower’s case, since its inception in 2007, the business includes providing energy to electricity services recommendation, for energy companies to provide customers interactive features, and recently launched the thermostat management and intelligent home field.

On current information, in terms of change, has been developing power market pilot areas could further expand, including in regions such as Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province, to the South, as well as pilot provinces such as Guizhou, Yunnan and Shanxi. Its trading range has also been expanded, including steady electricity trading electricity directly to long-term deals, pilot power spot market, expand the scope of transactions, transaction size, build a market environment for fair competition. And sales side, will also promote opening electricity sales business and incremental investment in distribution business in Guangdong, Chongqing and other places to carry out pilot reform of special marketing electricity side.

Original title: photovoltaic industry in electricity demand slowed innovation space

BNEF 2016 annual global electricity costs in the first half forecast update

Polaris solar PV net news: our 2016 forecasts global electricity costs in the first half, which relates the data from our research in the following three areas at the national level: the Americas (AMER), Asia-Pacific (APAC), Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) region.

In 2016, first half of global coal and natural gas-fired combined cycle gas turbine power plant (Combined Cycle GasTurbine,CCGT) of electricity costs in the Americas were down by 15% and 7%, in the Middle East and Africa decreased by 22% and 25%, 16% and 4% respectively in the Asia-Pacific region. Power costs decline in this round of largely falling fossil fuel prices as a direct result, the deeper reason is that United States, Europe and other key markets are in oversupply and sluggish demand growth under the present situation. According to our projections for 2030, United States natural gas prices decreased from $11.4/Mmbtu to $6.1/Mmbtu, Europe also fell from $16.2/Mmbtu to $10.4/Mmbtu.

However, in our system for its capital spending forecasts from $1.39/W to $1.21/W (DC), our benchmark of the global solar photovoltaic project cost estimate has cut 19% to $99/MWh. This helps solar photovoltaic projects continue to shrink and cost per kilowatt gap between onshore wind projects, which cost per kilowatt is in 2016 fell 2% to $81/MWh in the first half.

Our analysis of the cost per kilowatt is mainly based on his interlocutors on the project. At present, we do not consider subsidy cases, the world’s lowest cost per kilowatt of photovoltaic projects in the U.A.E. (UAE), for $51/MWh, lowest cost per kilowatt wind power project is located in United States, Texas, $40/MWh. However, recent auction results suggest power plant believes that part of the project will be put into production within the next 4-5 has the potential to further control costs. This round of the winning project of wind power prices down to $30/MWh, will start in 2020 years ago in Morocco serve; solar PV prices decreased to $36/MWh, will begin in 2019 years ago in Mexico service.


First half of 2016, fixed axis solar PV prices decline 19%, to $99/MWh, onshore wind energy prices fell to 2%, to $81/MWh, while offshore wind power decreased by 8%, to $161/MWh.

Because future prices to fall, AMER, and EMEA and APAC region average 12% lower cost per kilowatt of CCGT power plant, coal-fired power plant 18%.

Original title: 2016 global electricity costs in the first half forecast update

Hunan Thirteen Five planning by 2020 wind power solar power and other renewable

Polaris solar PV net news: recently, the provincial government released 13th five-year national economic and social development (2016-2020) program, planning elaborate strategic intent of the Government, clearly ambitious targets, major tasks for economic and social development and a major initiative is an important basis for assumed responsibility of the Government, the principal part of market behavior.

Reporters noted that 45 year period, the province will vigorously promote energy clean transformation. Give priority to developing new energy sources such as wind power, photovoltaic power generation, promote ground-source heat pump for heating and cooling applications, increase the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption. Promoting the “gasification of Hunan” project, accelerating national trunk, branch and city gas pipe network construction in the province, the basic realization of complete coverage of natural gas, County. Orderly development of clean and efficient coal power, full implementation of the existing coal-fired units upgraded energy-saving and emission reduction. Safe and orderly development of nuclear power, do site planning and protection. Promoting non-fossil fuels oil and gas to replace coal, fossil energy.

According to the plan by 2020, Hunan province will build 9.8GW wind, solar and biomass renewable energy power projects.

Hunan Thirteen-Five planning: by 2020, wind power, solar power and other renewable energy installed capacity 9.8GW

Original title: Hunan Thirteen-Five planning: by 2020, wind power, solar power and other renewable energy installed capacity 9.8GW

Liang Zhipeng this year will expand the scale of photovoltaic leader base

Polaris solar PV net news: Liang Zhipeng, Deputy Director of the National Energy Board new Energy Division on April 26 at the “2016 solar leaders Summit Forum of China”, said national energy Board this year to expand the size of PV leader in Al-Qaida, and introduce more sophisticated competition. Meanwhile, the choice of leader in this year’s base, would introduce price competition and price competition will account for a larger proportion.

Zhipeng Liang believes that PV industry to development must be driven by innovation and industrial upgrading. Meanwhile, lower cost, and lower prices, in order to achieve large-scale application. How to do this step? Zhipeng Liang stressed that from a technical, application, financing, marketing and policy management of the five aspects of innovation.

In terms of policy and management, said Liang Zhipeng, in order to promote technological progress, and lower prices, the National Energy Board this year to expand the size of PV leader in Al-Qaida, and the introduction of more sophisticated competition. Meanwhile, the choice of leader in this year’s base, would introduce price competition and price competition will account for a larger proportion.

“We need to take full competition to promote technological progress, lower prices. Scale management of photovoltaic power generation, but also to introduce competition. PV size file released at the same time, we will release the perfect PV scale management views and proposals compete allocation of project resources. These two documents issued almost at the same time. “Liang Zhipeng said.

He said related departments will promote the construction of photovoltaic projects with the introduction of specific rules, creating more favourable conditions for photovoltaic projects, and lower the cost of land use

Original title: Liang Zhipeng: this year will expand the scale of photovoltaic leader base

Pick Hat rely on Government subvention hareon continually and easily

Polaris solar PV net news: *ST sea run “pick hat” is coming.

According to the 2015 annual report, the company’s audited net profit indicators relating to delisting risk warnings has been removed, has applied to withdraw withdrawal risk prompts in the SSE. This means, according to related procedures, *ST sea run quick recovery this week “hareon” stock.

Lifting of delisting risks to the controversial company saved a bit of face. Hareon, or will this year experience a lot of “toss”: finally to profitability performance when you can sit? When lawsuits can sue? Vacancies of the company head when you can fill?

Is worthy of recognition, hareon last year’s “battle of the shell” played was more successful. Annual report, hareon revenues 6.089 billion yuan last year, up 22.8% from 2014. Net profit of 96 million Yuan, successfully fill in 2014, the year 948 million Yuan loss gap left.

Pick Hat rely on Government subvention hareon continually and easily

Hareon solar performance of “nightmare” beginning in 2011. Year, in order to successfully achieve the backdoor listing, shareholder of the company, Jiangsu sunshine group made a three-year high performance commitments. But the company will not achieve its objectives in the first year, and then embarked on a downhill.

Turns out, “fallen” was swift. From 2011 profit of 402 million yuan in losses, hareon with only a two-year period – in 2013, hareon loss of 203 million yuan in net profit that year. In 2014, its loss widened to 948 million Yuan, and “hats”.

Throughout the company’s business structure is not difficult to find, and losses derived from the solar cell and solar module both the main business of ups and downs. Hareon main cover five business: silicon Rod/sheet ingot, polycrystalline silicon for solar cell/sheet, solar cells, solar modules and solar photovoltaic power plant. Among them, the solar modules and solar cell businesses contributed to the company’s performance has remained in the top two. Especially the solar module business, and its annual revenues are above 50% per cent.

Pick Hat rely on Government subvention hareon continually and easily

However, 2011-2014, hareon suffered a component with a solar cell business gross margin is extremely unstable condition. In 2011, the two main business, gross margins were 11.65%, 8.51%. In 2014, the value slipped to 10.61% and 2.22% respectively. But by 2013, components and solar cell business gross margin improvement, 12.43% and 8.5%, respectively.

In 2015, hareon was able to successfully achieve profitability is closely related to the two main business. Component services in revenues last year of 3.515 billion yuan, up 22.6% from 2014, gross margin of 15.7%; solar cell business 2015 achieved revenues of 906 million Yuan, an increase of 16.97%, gross margin was 8.98%. It is worth mentioning that, both gross margin of the business last year were at a nearly five-year high.

Components and the battery is behind the record-high gross margin of sales last year, the two types of products had improved significantly. On one hand, in 2015, the component of the company’s production capacity of 944MW, sales reached 1051MW, the sales rate to 111.33% in 2014, representing a 89.65% there has been a significant increase in the rate of production and marketing. The other hand, the company’s production and sales of solar cell business are further improved, production and marketing rate of 34.19%, its highest value in 2012. In addition, the company has done a good job in inventory levels. These two products inventories last year to 28MW, 20MW in 2014, representing a down 53.3% and 59.57%, respectively.

Pick Hat rely on Government subvention hareon continually and easily

But it attracted the attention of journalists. In this report, hareon do not disclose sales customer situations, only to “these silicon wafers, cells, modules containing part of the internal use of industrial chain,” explained. In the related party transactions column, named ReNewSolarEnergy (Karnataka) PrivateLimited Consortium (hareon directly held 49% shares) during the reporting period to purchase 239 million worth of components. In the previous issue, the transaction amount is 0. Although this part of turnover accounted for only 6.8% components of annual revenue, but this will make people think.

Of course, performance has also benefited from its introduction in 2012 solar PV power plant business. Hareon solar PV power plant businesses include power generation and construction. Construction business in 2013 for the company to expand the business, the formation of the business marking hareon solar sphere model of vertical integration. Power generation and power station engineering construction growth is obvious. Among them, generating revenue growth to 2015 from 2012 in 48 million yuan of 327 million Yuan, gross margin was 43.47%. Power plant construction business in the year 2013 layout of its 629 million yuan in revenues. Last year, it reached 969 million yuan of income in 2014, representing a growth of 59.51%, and in one fell swoop over the solar cell business.

Focus on main business recovery does make hareon business this year has been “emboldened”. However, the company this year to continue to improve is not easy.

First, the company in 2015 narrowly complete losses, but the profitability of part of the company’s main business is slipping. In addition to components, solar cell, solar PV power plant main profit points, silicon and polycrystalline silicon-chip business has been for the company’s “senior” business. However, these two operations last year dragged performance “hind legs”. Polycrystalline silicon wafer business in 2015 and 17 million of revenue, but the data not only than in 2013 of 260 million Yuan, and its gross profit margin was-15.94%. Last year, the other a silicon chip business is simply no revenue. In addition, even revenue share of solar photo-voltaic power generating income, its gross margin also decreased, has dropped to 43.47% last year from 66.68% in 2012.

In addition, solar cells and modules business or in 2016 will be encountered price impact, significantly impact the company’s performance this year. In terms of cells, according to Taiwan research firm survey released TrendForce is a member of the EnergyTrend3 month, United States, and Japan the peak end of the PV device settings, combined with photovoltaic grid-connected power generation equipment business in China will be at the end of June this year, a combination of factors to consider global market demand of solar cell is on the decline. Decreases the demand for lead developers began to get orders “price war”, solar cell prices fall or at an unexpected rate. In terms of components, according to the PV market research agency PVInsights statistical sampling, 2016, the whole component prices continued to fall. Thus, both types of product price risk will spread to the country’s first vertically integrated photovoltaic companies, hence, hareon impact is inevitable.

Pick Hat rely on Government subvention hareon continually and easily

Second, although hareon 96 million yuan in net profit last year, but its ownership of shareholders of listed companies non-96 million yuan in net profit, the data for companies for 4 consecutive years of negative values. It recorded into the profits and losses of the current period of government subsidies on a value most. In consecutive losses in 2013 and 2014, the Government’s subsidies reached its lowest level for nearly 5 years, 38 million, 32 million Yuan, respectively, far less than the 175 million Yuan, 454 million in 2011 and 2012. Last year, the Government’s subsidies to increase recorded into the profits and losses of the current period value reached 115 million Yuan, which has become the key to company to profitability.

Moreover, as synergies with the parent company’s wholly-owned subsidiary of 18 key, half are still at a loss. Among them, hareon (Shanghai) co-led 3 domestic wholly-owned subsidiaries amounted to a loss of 113 million Yuan last year, and S.C.GreenVisionSevenS.R.L. 6 overseas, led by wholly-owned subsidiary (*ST hairun’s main overseas wholly owned a total of 8) amounted to a loss of 95 million Yuan last year.

Hareon also is facing a projected liabilities arising from the lawsuits. 2015 according to the annual reports of the company, and its pending litigation or arbitration during the reporting period a total of 9 items. One of the most interesting is that company was released on January 23, 2015 ten get 20 high transfer plans for misleading statements, the original shareholders disproportionately large holdings of failing to disclose, the original shareholders to engage in short-term trading caused by investment losses of small shareholders, or the compensation of 51.2653 million Yuan for the company. Up to April 2016, the first batch of 17 investors hareon false statement of securities litigation case settlement phase amounts to 676,400.

Worth noting is that management instability hareon has become a big problem. Company founder, known as the “Godfather of solar,” said Yang Huaijin in December 2015, resigned as President, Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of the post company and two of its directors resigned. In order to play well, “war”, senior director Li Yanren “fire” took over as Chairman, but resigned from the post this month. As of now, hareon yet announcement of new Chairman candidate.

Original title: pick hat wants to rely on Government subvention hareon performance continued improvement will not be easy

County of Anhui province s 72 hours of sunshine NASA and MN average

Polaris solar PV net news: PV calculation yields the most critical factor is the light hours, Anhui Province, today we will bring you hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average). The data have many years of PV designers developed detailed calculation, worked hard for.

County of Anhui province's 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

County of Anhui province's 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

County of Anhui province's 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

County of Anhui province's 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

County of Anhui province's 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

Original title: County of Anhui province’s 72 hours of sunshine (NASA and MN average)

Jinzhai Anhui the Sun poverty alleviation

Polaris solar PV net news: from the “Twelve-Five” implementation, “Thirteen-Five” planning force from 2014 PV poverty “experimental field” to today’s PV poverty “demonstration counties”, the cradle of the Red Army, General’s hometown, to mountains to the main battlefield of the revolution, began a series of photovoltaic poverty reduction practices. Especially since the 2014 implementation of accurate poverty alleviation, jinzhai County, Anhui and the country poverty reduction provides a replication, replicable model PV poverty alleviation was listed as one of the accurate ten key projects for poverty alleviation. At present, over more than 20 provinces throughout the country has more than 90 counties fact-finding visits to jinzhai, learn jinzhai PV the successful experience of poverty alleviation.

Jinzhai, Anhui: the Sun

Photovoltaic power generation, a mountain poverty reduction path selection

“Thanks to the photovoltaic power generation, from last year to now, I already have 4560 revenue, not only married a daughter-in-law, older mothers also had to look after. “A few days ago, jinzhai County tie Chong Xiang Deng Changyu is delighted, 54, told reporters.

It turns out that in August 2014, and like many poor, Deng Changyu household PV on the roof. Installed capacity up to now, the families for a total output of 4560 w, according to price and State subsidy for each 1 element, the household’s current revenue 4560, and incomes increased.

“Is located in the mountainous area in jinzhai County, lack of means of production, combined with migrant workers ‘ disability ‘, ‘ disabled ‘ families, poverty in the ‘ hard ‘ hard stuff. “Introduce jinzhai County, Chief of the Office of poverty alleviation, local governments in the County overall poor implementation of PV power generation projects, through the” village households to the people to “thoughts on poverty alleviation, was completed by June this year 6733 photovoltaic power plant building for poverty alleviation, help the poor 5799.

“Photovoltaic technology is mature, higher returns on investment, without labour, simple, one-time investment, long-term benefit, especially for supporting ‘ disability ‘, ‘ disabled ‘ poor. “In jinzhai County, poverty and migration and Development Secretary Ma Changru, select PV project is the right choice.

The beginning of 2014, in order to make photovoltaic power generation and the poor “affinity”, jinzhai County in different directions to select 8 pilot, considering the return on investment and fund-raising capacity, installation conditions and other factors, designed to PV installed capacity 3-kilowatt, each household 24,000 yuan investment, annual generation revenue more than 3,000 yuan.

The success of the pilot, strengthened the confidence and determination to implement PV to poverty alleviation in jinzhai County, then was divided into two groups of poor implementation of the 2000 Household PV power station, installed 3-kilowatt per household. 2015 and further expand the photovoltaic power generation project, completed on June 30 6733 photovoltaic power plant building for poverty alleviation, including poor 5799. In addition, to address collective economic weakness, in financing for 218 villages in every village to build a 60-kilowatt of village collective photovoltaic power plant.

“Photovoltaic incomes of poor rural families to address three or four people in one of the most basic questions of life, at the same time, in every village of the County funding construction of a collective 60-kilowatt photovoltaic power plant, annual income of 65,000 yuan, collective economic weakness can be resolved in one fell swoop. “Ma Changru said.

Accurate to within households, fupinlu does not fall on a

Recently, the poverty reduction working group came to the village in jinzhai County tie Chong Xiang Ye Zusheng 51 years old, a 6 people in helping them to further develop anti-poverty programs. PV poverty reduction when filing state card last year, Ye Zusheng is not particularly poor households. However, an unexpected accident, had just finished a heart aneurysm excision surgeries Ye Zuxin, the left kidney area causing severe trauma, a unique labor this fall. “Ye Zusheng family changes, we need to further understand the situation, helping poverty alleviation. “Tie Chong Xiang Xiang Chang Lin Shu said.

Prior to the implementation of accurate poverty, minority village resident village just to the poor village to take a walk, take a look at, there is no specific goal, poor family property mapping is not clear. According to jinzhai County poverty and immigration Development Council Deputy Secretary Shi Peifu introduced, now, precision recognition work in jinzhai County 23 a Xiang full expand, survey mapping to villagers group for units, through villagers group households registration, and democratic comments, and publicity Hou reported village, and Xiang summary reported County, take poor recognition “four level publicity” (villagers group, and village, and Xiang County publicity) practices, ensure has on poverty family survey results fair, and just, and annual once dynamic to master changes situation, then again according to reality developed PV poverty project.

“To tie Chong Xiang River village, for example, last November, 12 4 group research group, an overall analysis of the household survey on River village. 2015 in State households 100 321 people. “Tie Chong Xiang Lin Shu officer briefing,” we focused on a number of ‘ disability ‘ and ‘ disabled ‘ poor implementation of PV to poverty alleviation, effective, quick, and average monthly capacity up to 280 Watts, the average monthly income of 280 Yuan. ”

In 2014, as a second batch for household photovoltaic pilot poverty alleviation project, installed in more than a month of time more than 1000 families. In 2015, the third for household photovoltaic installed capacity, more than 6,700 households a 1.5 month. Lutheran PV industry holdings in jinzhai County, Wang Lei, head of the construction so efficient photovoltaic equipment installation work, leading in the country.

And I owe it all to strong supervision of the progress of the projects. “Daily work schedule where, above all know very well, in charge of the leadership in the County, the supply companies, the Finance Bureau focal point and some construction units are actively cooperate with, which is the main reason PV home ahead of other regions. “Shi Peifu said.

Dynamic adjustment, poverty reduction from “blood transfusion” to “blood”

Since the installation of the photovoltaic power generation equipment, army in jinzhai County village of new f-regularly check their electricity every day. On December 8, 2015, she found the slow growth of the amount of power on the inverter and abnormal, immediately call the PV maintenance calls. Less than 24 hours, maintenance technical personnel and the cadres of the central team site for processing. Install photovoltaic equipment turned out to be due to the recent poor increased absorptive power of circuit power grid caused by abnormal enough.

“There is a problem, solve the problem. “Army Deputy Head of Xiang Yang Qingwu said. At present, in order to accelerate the pace of upgrading rural power grids in jinzhai County, improving the absorptive capacities of rural power grids, jinzhai County is actively applied for national projects and investment projects to lower regional power grids, meet the Internet needs of photovoltaic power generation.

In fact, PV will encounter many problems in poverty alleviation work. On June 30, 2014, when grid-connected electricity generation, about more than 1000 families prevent the phenomenon of normal and low power on power. According to Shi Peifu memories, then County poverty alleviation office phone was blowing up. “The problem is inverter program, we immediately set up a new energy solution group, research technician in two days to change the programs on your computer and quickly solved the problem. ”

PV project for poverty alleviation process, is to continuously explore the improvement process.

On the scope of application, by the introduction of the construction of a centralized PV enterprises, the development of innovative implementation of distributed PV project for poverty alleviation from distributed photovoltaic projects to further extend the implementation of village collective PV power generation projects. In the Internet model, for safeguarding people in maximum benefits, starting from the most spontaneous use, power instead of generating all Internet access, per kilowatt-hour, farmers ‘ income 1. On the support, through communication and exchanges, enterprises and social forces to participate in poverty reduction is also quietly changed, starting from the most donations, into supporting the poor construction of photovoltaic power plants, poverty by “blood transfusion” to the “blood”.

“Taking into account household PV poverty alleviation projects dispersed, post management difficulties and other factors, we adjust the plan focuses on building solar power station for poverty alleviation, collective property rights, proceeds to repay loans, in accordance with the classification levels assigned to the poor, and dynamic management of poor households. “Ma Changru said, at present, is trying to carry out such projects.

Planning for the future, addressing 30,000 people out of poverty problem

PV represented poverty alleviation in jinzhai County, has become the brand of the dabie mountain area targeted poverty alleviation projects, more and more people benefit from it. 2015, the provincial Governor Li Jinbin had three field visits to research in depth in jinzhai County, poverty reduction. June 15-16th, Shi Xiang spent thousands village in jinzhai County, investigated Li Jinbin distributed PV to the home for poverty alleviation projects and collective economic organizations of PV power station construction. He pointed out that, should pay attention to power project construction, but also to improving operation and maintenance services, PV mass increased stable sources of income.

“Next we will energetically carry out ‘ the jinyang poverty alleviation programme. “Refers to plan for the future, said Ma Changru, in building photovoltaic power plants for poverty alleviation on the basis of focus on supporting the poor and poverty, ATD village expanded PV power station and village-level collective utility scale PV poverty alleviation. Expect by 2020, 5-kilowatt County build household total 200,000-kilowatt households household PV power station; mountain Township construction group donates 40% photovoltaic power stations for poverty alleviation and funding for poverty alleviation in 60%, The total scale of 15,000 kW; 218 villages every village a village collective 60-kilowatt photovoltaic power stations on the basis of every village virtual construction of photovoltaic power stations for poverty alleviation, expanded to more than 100-kilowatt help 1000 poor families with strong desire to install build 3-kilowatt photovoltaic power plant for poverty alleviation. Expected estimates, poverty alleviation through photovoltaic, realize the County’s average annual income of poor families more than 5500 Yuan, benefiting poor village collective average annual increase of about 110,000 yuan.

“Coupled with the development of characteristic agriculture in 2020, will solve problems 30,000 people out of poverty in our County! “When it comes to 5 years out of poverty task, Ma Chang felt pressure Alexander also expressed confidence, saying:” now the policies and importance are not the same, PV drive the poor out of poverty for poverty alleviation more, the future we will be more determined to take the Sun Road for poverty alleviation. ”

Original title: PV anti-poverty “jinzhai mode” under the Sun “poverty alleviation”

Us SunEdison a solar energy giant filed for bankruptcy protection set aside

Polaris solar PV net news: Beijing 21st night Bloomberg said two-year acquisition spree totalling 3.1 billion dollars of its debt out of control and leads after investors rushed to sell, SunEdisonInc. Filed for bankruptcy protection.

On Thursday, the clean energy giant in Federal Court in Manhattan under the United States bankruptcy law, the 11th chapter bankruptcy protection, set aside $ 16.1 billion of debt, making it the year United States largest bankruptcy. Although merger and acquisition craze eventually led to SunEdison bankruptcy, but in the case of commodity prices, the energy companies have suffered heavy losses and the fact that. Earlier this month, coal producer Peabody energy is also seeking bankruptcy protection, reported debts of $ 10.1 billion.

SunEdison CEO Ahmad Chatila said Thursday’s announcement, said: “we decided to start by the court-supervised reorganization, it was a tough decision, but it is also an important step in addressing urgent liquidity problems. “He said, and the company through the bankruptcy process to cut debt and spin off” non-core “assets.

Original title: United States SunEdison, a solar energy giant filed for bankruptcy protection

India temporarily abandoned manned robot exploration Scout

  Wei Feng network on January 20, that most countries in the world, and in many cases is not the United States or European countries, but India. After all, India every now and then something will come up with some of the more exotic, and in many cases, people began to look. And in the end, people will be surprised to find: India is quite strong.

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  A few years ago, when India had the Moon and Mars, almost didn’t make people laugh their heads off. End result strength face, India launched the world’s lowest-cost mission to Mars, total cost was only $ 67 million. Such a price is not good enough even for the NASA, India people really did. Ted Baker iPhone 6 Plus cases

India temporarily abandoned manned robot exploration Scout

  And now, under the India space research organization (ISRO) accounts, even to save, they completed the cost of manned space missions budget will reach 400-300 billion rupees (about 5.9-4.43 billion US dollars). Because of this cost is not low, along with ISRO may “I reflect on oneself three times” a lot, they reflected on the biggest problem is the manned space really needs. If only to prove the power and there is no economic interest, then for the ISRO, manned space program also need not be pursued.

  So, in this context, India intends to temporarily abandon the manned space program, and was replaced by robots. For now it is very likely, we can save money, and secondly to test new equipment.

  Although many times it is easy to ignore, but now have to pay attention to is: India enjoys a meteoric rise in aviation, what if in the future they really created the “miracle”, don’t be surprised.

[Article correction]

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Tags: robot Science and technology

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