Denmark energy in small countries great ambition

Polaris solar PV net news: only 5.6 million Nordic country of Denmark is practicing a major commitment in renewable energy development. In the early 1970 of the 20th century, Denmark 92% of the country’s energy dependence on imported oil. Today, Denmark more than 40% of electricity supplied by renewable power. Denmark pledged: 2035 100% power comes from renewable energy, by 2050 all industries using renewable energy. In addition, Denmark also plans not to use carbon emission quota of cases, to reduce 2020 greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 40%, which is more than ten years ahead of EU objectives.

Wind power pioneers

Denmark boasts rich wind power resources: average wind speed of 7.6 m/s (California’s Altamont Pass wind farm wind of 5.3 m 7.1 m/s, and the power output is proportional to the square of the wind speed). Denmark’s goal is that by 2020 wind power accounted for 50% of the total national electricity consumption is now smooth progress toward that goal. In 2015, the Denmark wind power has 42% of the nation’s total electricity.

In 1991, Denmark built over the sea at a distance of 2 kilometers coastline of the total installed capacity of 5MW wind farms to become the world’s first country to building large offshore wind farms. Since then, Denmark has built four other offshore wind farms, offshore wind energy installed capacity up to 1271MW. Meanwhile, Denmark also has 300 wind turbines on land. As of January 1, 2016, the nation’s total wind power installed capacity has reached 5070MW. In order to achieve the goals of 2020 wind power electricity consumption of 50%, Denmark also plans to add 1000MW offshore wind power installed capacity and 500MW offshore wind power installed capacity and larger stand-alone power replacement of wind turbines on land the old unit.

In order to avoid local residents oppose the construction of onshore wind farms, Denmark Government issued a series of regulations to ensure that the public’s support.

If, for example, resulting from the construction of the wind farm depreciation of the property of the local population, they get appropriate compensation, local communities can also share part of the revenue from electricity sales of wind power and, in addition, allowed local resident shareholding at least 20% wind farm ownership.

Energy efficiency leader

In terms of de-linking economic growth and energy consumption, Denmark also set a very good example. The past 30 years, the country’s energy consumption has remained relatively stable, but GDP has doubled. Denmark electricity and natural gas transmission system operator Chief Economist Henning Energinet Parbo said: “our ongoing efforts in energy efficiency greatly reduces electricity demand, and Denmark is not dependent on the development of energy-intensive industries. ”

In fact, Denmark is one of the most energy-efficient EU and OECD countries. This benefited to some extent Denmark companies optimize their industrial production processes, production facilities and equipment. Denmark aims by 2020 to reduce national energy consumption than 2010 levels by 7%. Including oil, electricity, natural gas and district heating, Denmark each energy sector is allocated according to the market share of the industry energy-saving targets. These sector industries association according to each company’s market share, energy-saving and responsibilities breakdown for each member company. Since 1977, Denmark new building efficiency has increased 4 times, and beginning in 2013 on the prohibition of the installation in the new building oil or gas heating system.

Highest proportion of distributed generation

In the area of combined heat and power (CHP), Denmark as the world’s leading. Denmark national 12% of electricity from biomass and organic waste cogeneration facility, and 80% area central heating from combined heat and power. Today, Denmark has 670 cogeneration facilities scattered throughout the country.

Denmark is currently using most of the biomass fuel from straw and biodegradable waste, which 30% were imported from Eastern European countries and Canada of wood pellet and wood chips. Supporters argue that the burning of biomass power generation wood pellet is a carbon-neutral energy form, because the carbon dioxide absorbed by plants in the process of growing quantities and is equal to the amount of carbon dioxide released during combustion. But there are a lot of people think of gathering wood as biomass fuel is not carbon neutral and behaviors, and damage to bio-diversity around the world.

Denmark climate, energy, and the Ministry announced in December 2014, only allowed to buy in the future based on sustainable production of biomass. The agreement has strict requirements for the whole biomass supply chains, provisions for the supply of biomass energy and cut down the trees must be replanted. But that still failed to quell the controversy, some say the replanting of trees may not be able to grow up healthy, they are also advocating the underground biomass resources must also be protected, including its biodiversity. And although the sustainable production of biomass, but it may continue to reduce in volume.

Denmark developing cogeneration facilities and wind generation capacity so that it became one of the countries with the highest proportion of distributed generation. Denmark has 15 centralized power plant in 1990. Now, there are 20 centralized plant (installed capacity of 4200MW), 45 electric boiler (installed capacity of 550MW), 5300 wind turbines (installed capacity 5070MW) and 94,000 solar PV panels (installed capacity 785MW) and 670 cogeneration plant (capacity 2300MW).

Renewable power grid stability

Despite market doubts wind stable enough, but Denmark one of the advantages is that it there are many neighbouring countries to export surplus wind power. Dang Denmark wind excess, as in July last year, when the country’s wind power capacity of the power demand of 1.4 times times, it has to export excess electricity to Sweden, and Norway and Germany. Sweden and Norway imported electricity is to conserve its water resources diversion when the lack of wind and hydroelectric power. Germany uses its own wind turbine to save coal. Due to the legal (and economic dispatch) require priority use of local renewable energy resources, coupled with Germany’s own renewable energy development is very developed, making it absorb Denmark wind power capacity is limited. In addition, Denmark is also planning to establish a network connection with countries farther apart, such as the Netherlands and England.

Denmark plans to build smart grid systems, and in 2005 began to practice on a full scale smart grid pilot project, with modular structure reconstruction of its power grid. For unit control pilot project (CCPP) continued a seven-year period, in a 1000 square kilometers of area using advanced computer system cooperative control of wind turbines, cogeneration power plant and other distributed generation resources, all these resources into a virtual power plant as a whole, according to wind conditions and intelligently adjust the resources consumed power installed generating capacity.

This will not only enhance the stability of power grids, as well as providing ancillary services, power balance, power output and input, voltage control and so on. Energinet study shows that using Smart grids can provide socio-economic benefits of up to $ 1.2 billion.

Most importantly, 15 years ago Denmark grid operators believe that renewable power supply 60% Network Magic, and today it has become a reality. In the integration of diverse, distributed and often unstable electricity from renewable resources, Denmark has become one of the world’s most powerful countries. Thus, Denmark is Europe’s most stable power supply, or even slightly over Germany, its stable than United States 10 times higher.

Say goodbye to fossil fuels

Want in 2050 get rid of fossil fuels, transportation is a big challenge, however, Denmark has made great progress in this regard. In order to prevent gasoline consumption, Denmark 180% tax on new cars, and electric vehicle shall be exempt from taxation; weighed more than 2 tons of cars 95% tax and years tax on energy-efficiency vehicles not eligible each year. Denmark free parking all cities are equipped with electric vehicles. Throughout Denmark, an estimated more than 4 million bicycles and 10,000 km of bike lanes. One-third of office workers and students across the country choose to ride a bike to work or school.

Denmark in its report for the year 2014, the Department of energy discusses how to achieve zero fossil fuels in 2050 the four scenarios:

Wind power: mainly on wind power, solar power and combined heat and power generation, including heating and a high degree of electrification of the transport sector;

Biomass: the meet as a cogeneration of electricity and district heating;

“Biomass +” scenario: use biomass instead of coal, oil and natural gas. Wind turbine at 2020 levels (total capacity of 50%);

Hydrogen fuel: the most significant wind resources in any situation, and at the same time to develop hydrogen fuel manufacturing.

Denmark also faces challenges. Parbo said to the Rocky Mountain Institute: “zero marginal costs on renewable energy development in Europe continued policy support, the traditional power generation enterprises out of the market, but it will bring difficulties to electricity pricing. Also, how to wind and solar resources are not available to ensure the electricity supply will be our main challenge for the future. ”

But Denmark Department of energy report’s main conclusions show, Denmark 100% get rid of fossil fuels in the energy system is technically feasible, and Denmark is moving toward that goal.

Original title: Denmark: small country big ambitions

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