Polaris solar PV net news: 2015 in cumulative installed capacity 43GW in China surpass Germany as the world’s largest PV cumulative installed capacity of countries, in which large contributions reach ground power station 84%.
Industry sources said, large ground station of PV development in China has made great achievements, also faces serious challenges.
National Energy Board “distributed PV direct transactions and major policy research” Research Director, Tsinghua University Institute for energy innovation on the Internet Policy Director He Jijiang Dr, “abandoning” problem has hampered development of the photovoltaic industry, the deeper reason is that existing policies are not enough to guide the photovoltaic project near the building.
According to data released by the China PV industry association show 2015 national dispatching abandon rates 12.62%, concentrated in the Northwest region of Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang and four provinces, Gansu province, which left up to 30.7%.
Meanwhile, the National Energy Board’s “distributed PV direct transactions and major policy research” subject of another participant, the Zhongguancun Xinhua’s new energy industry Research Institute and Vice Chairman and Secretary-General Lin Yu believes that distributed PV development in China lags behind, challenge is enormous. Photovoltaic installed capacity distributed in photovoltaic, only 16%, which Access 10,000 volts and the voltage levels of grid-connected photovoltaic project capacity is only 4.73 million-kilowatt, total 1.1%. Thirteen-Five 2020 in the planning of distributed PV cumulative installed capacity is 70 gigawatts, 46.7% per cent of total capacity of 150 GW of PV, that is to say the next five years increase distributed in photovoltaic PV accounted for more than 63%. This target can be achieved?
He Jijiang told Xinhua that PV lies close to the market in the development of the nearest building, breaking policy is critical to implementation of distributed PV development impasse “to the nearest building, professional development, direct transactions”, and come up with a new adaptation of distributed PV electricity price policy.
He Jijiang describes, Germany development of distributed PV with reference to China. Germany is not the solar energy resource-rich countries. Germany average annual sunshine time about 1500 hours, average PV only when more than 800 hours, not countries with good lighting conditions. However, 2015 Germany PV power has 6% per cent of total capacity. Germany total PV installed capacity 40 gigawatts, which 80% more than distributed PV, dissolve without problems. At noon on June 9, 2014, Germany’s solar energy production peak is 23.1GW, the instantaneous power in 50.6% per cent of national electricity demand. Although not as light in Eastern China resources Northwest, but Germany is also significantly better.
According to the domestic photovoltaic industry measurement, average annual power generation in East China’s coastal provinces is higher than the number of hours to 1100 hours, power generation in the provincial capital Hangzhou 986 with the least number of hours, the highest for Tianjin 1317 hours. Photovoltaic power generation at 1214 hours in Beijing. Sun resources from the point of view, the best places such as Tibet, Qinghai solar resource, however, from the perspective of market demand, photovoltaic resources the largest market in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong and other economically developed areas. The relatively tight power supply, total energy consumption indexes of constraint, was more critical, commercial and industrial electricity prices in those areas is high.
To Beijing for cases for electric price analysis, implemented peak Valley electric price, 10 o’clock in the morning to 3 o’clock in the afternoon between in 1000 v following access of business electricity applies peak paragraph electric price 1.4 Yuan each kWh, currently PV of degrees electric cost has below this numerical, and this time paragraph also is PV most main of power period, alone national also on distributed PV has for 20 years of 0.42 Yuan of degrees electric subsidies, Beijing city also has subsidies policy. If businesses are able to actively eliminate PV, distributed PV in Beijing is likely to usher in the explosive development. Analysis on electric vehicle charging prices. Beijing electric power company, has just released EV charging peak-Valley electricity price, 10 to 15, the company’s public post service charges prices for 1.8 Yuan/degree, this price is significantly higher than that of solar electricity cost. If solar charging station programme, using the car park roof PV or rooftop PV to recharge electric vehicles, PV can be profitable. The incentive business if you have the right to dissolve solar policy innovation, will greatly stimulate high electricity prices in eastern areas distributed in photovoltaic development.
Nearest building, professional development, direct deals
How do current distributed PV healthy development? Give three pieces of advice about this doctor He Jijiang, he considered that, first, the nearest building, professional development, direct transactions.
Its significance lies in that current applicable policies of distributed PV is divided into “full Internet” and “spontaneous use, more than power” in two ways. Photovoltaic projects now, and is much higher than the proportion of spontaneous use of full Internet access. Full Internet access does not reflect matching relation between PV and local electricity demand, local pricing and full Internet access regardless of the price. Cities a lot of roofs are more suitable for spontaneous use of the distributed model, however, owners and investors but not love. As far as price, power prices are significantly lower than the full price of Internet access. A case study of Beijing, Beijing PV full Internet access for 0.98 Yuan/kWh price, balances Internet access part of the applicable price for the desulfurization of coal-fired electricity prices and State subsidies. Desulfurization of coal-fired electricity price in Beijing was 0.3515 Yuan/kWh, State-subsidized 0.42 Yuan per kWh, total 0.7715 Yuan, far less than three full Internet access price of 0.98 Yuan. Due to roof PV must be directed to owners can truly be called a spontaneous use. Reality using PV developer signed a power purchase agreement with the owners of ways to adapt to the spontaneous use of terms, as some owners purchase contract period short or weak implementation effectiveness reasons, investors often tend to spontaneously use patterns. For property owners, spontaneous use of course, can reduce the electricity costs the effect, but for the majority of industrial and commercial businesses and families, building rooftop PV will encounter design, installation, financing, operation and maintenance, and many other difficulties, which many owners fear the embarrassment of ideas, these factors have affected the development of distributed PV in urban, resulting in a large number of idle resources previously spent on the roof.
The key to breaking the bottleneck is to encourage the specialized companies, in areas where electricity demand, on the roof of the idle resources for professional development, and business users directly deals with higher electricity prices, referred to as “the nearest building, professional development, direct transactions”. Purchase and sale free bilateral contracts, consult the corresponding volume deviation settlement terms, price, and so on. Grid PV power station provides access to the power grid and transmission and distribution services, and charge fees over the net. Direct trading of power grids for distributed PV power, provide grid and network services, charging NET fees. To 1000 volts of distributed PV grid-connected not charging NET fees. Access to 10,000 volts and 35,000-volt connection of distributed PV, in areas that have clear transmission and distribution price, in accordance with different voltage level of transmission and distribution price difference determining fees over the net, in the absence of a clear transmission and distribution price area, according to the different local voltage difference determining the sale price over the net. PV installed capacity of 10,000 volts access as not to exceed the current bus capacity of 10,000 volts of 50% limited, design fees over the net beyond this limit. In the Beijing area, access to 10,000 volts of solar over the net cost less than 1000 volts of electricity price and the 10,000 volt difference between the sales price to calculate, or 0.02 Yuan. For access to 35,000-volt substation intelligent management system of PV power station should be actively construct, and through the coordination of grid scheduling and photovoltaic power plant, to dissolve within the 35,000-volt substations, substation to the supervisor to avoid sending the trend. For pilot districts distributed in photovoltaic appear to the upper transmission substation may be made by the power companies and sale of electricity companies is Internet service agreement.
Low voltage grid connected PV need grid power quality management, backup and other services, but also the day reduced peak capacity, reduce line losses, low voltage control with contributions. Power company charges a service fee to the PV power station also needs based on case studies, in front of the power companies and other stakeholders put forward a clear programme, can be temporarily exempt from the charge a service fee.
He Jijiang believes that the deepening of the reform of power, has sprung up around a lot of electricity companies, their PV “to the nearest building, professional development, and direct trade” will play a strong supporting role.
Low voltage distributed in photovoltaic raised power price
He Jijiang’s second proposal, distributed PV should be increased on the low pressure side over power price. In this regard, he explained that the distributed grid-connected PV is in the low pressure side. Currently distributed PV power pricing with the province’s coal prices binding. But this approach ignores an important characteristic of distributed PV, PV in distributed to 10,000 volts access, or access to 35,000 volts, due to its closer to the user, and transportation and distribution costs are low. Power is always connected to the high voltage grid in thermal power plants and transmission network and distribution network to the user. Distributed than power generated by grid-connected photovoltaic system costs are much lower, but pricing does not reflect this characteristic.
In the electric power system reform into a market price prior to implementation, it is recommended that directly increase for PV power price, on the basis of the existing new coal-fired electricity price coupled with transmission and distribution price. Transmission and distribution price has not been announced in Beijing can now be temporarily seconded by most comparable published in Shenzhen power transmission and distribution price. Shenzhen City in 2016 0.1802 is 10,000 volts of electricity transmission and distribution prices. Recommended Beijing in more than 10,000 volts connected photovoltaic power price adjustments for 0.3515+0.1802, total 0.5317 Yuan. Beijing clear transmission and distribution price can be re-other areas low voltage-grid electricity prices could make reference to the principle.
State of distributed PV electricity and local subsidies be maintained. For example, national 0.42 kWh of electricity subsidies. As PV costs continue to fall, this part of the subsidy can be reduced, so as to reduce the pressure of State subsidies. But before the State collect the carbon tax on coal-fired power, the subsidy should not be dropped entirely.
Distributed PV is necessary for trial implementation of peak-Valley electricity price
He Jijiang Dr’s third recommendation is “distributed PV is necessary for trial implementation of peak-Valley electricity price”. In his view, the current PV on-grid price policy is also a disadvantage is not reflect load requirements of regulating electricity prices, according to market principles. Is the peak load during the day, most of the area is currently running peak-Valley electricity price. Solar power during the day, can alleviate the pressure during the day, should be encouraged. In the case of spot market currently not operating, recommends the implementation of peak and Valley power price at generation side.
At present, the principle of market design of small hydropower in parts of peak and Valley and abundant electricity prices, this has obvious reference on pricing mechanism of distributed PV. With wide-a city in the Northeast, for example, can choose a fixed price for small hydropower, or peak-Valley price can only be selected once a year. SHP are actually adopting peak-Valley electricity price. Small hydropower price 0.4282, peak to Valley ratio of peak-Valley electricity price of 1.5:1, abundant abundant electricity prices than 2:1. Water peak period electricity prices of small hydropower 0.4469, 0.2234 Valley electricity price. Small hydropower in dry season peak-period price 0.6703, 0.3352 Valley electricity price. This pricing strategy reflects the load regulating electricity prices, according to market principles.
Beijing electric power prices peak, peak, flat and low price of four. PV as early as 7 o’clock in the morning in summer, this is low hours, later experienced a normal period, and during peak rush hour. Policy recommendations in the second design of photovoltaic power generation benchmark price as flat this time, design high rate and low two estimates of peak-Valley electricity price, high rate peak electricity price by 1.5 times in the programme estimates peak electricity prices by 1.6 times double degree, low price at 0.5 times of measurement. Peak electricity prices low scenarios based on 1.3 times ratio, peak electricity prices by 1.4 times ratio, low electricity prices to 0.7 times the calculation results are shown in the following figure.
In this scenario, high rate 10:00 to 15:00 under the programme, between the PV price of 0.7679 Yuan per kilowatt hour, the low programme price 0.6912 Yuan per kilowatt hour.
This policy could be considered tentative implemented about 5 years, along with the future of distributed PV scale increase, change of load characteristics, and the construction of electricity spot market, which eventually will be digested by the spot market.
Dr He Jijiang believes that, if we adopt these three policy options, there are four distinct roles. First, this pricing policy is beneficial to future centralized PV with distributed PV uniform for the kWh subsidy policy, and encouraged the construction of distributed PV in a marketing way. Second, this low voltage distributed grid-connected photovoltaic electricity pricing policy price is above the high voltage grid-connected PV prices, effectively encouraged the construction of distributed PV. Thirdly, the price policy to gradually reduce subsidies distributed PV, reducing State subsidies under pressure. IV, peak-Valley electricity price in the design is conducive to all kinds of market entities understand the spot market characteristics, and conducive to the smooth transition to the spot market in the future.
Original title: He Jijiang: distributed PV development needs to be broken key policy Council